Volume 7, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2022, Page 3-253

Palm Trees In the Greco-Roman World

Wathiq Ismaeel Al-Salihi

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3-23
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170118

The Greeks called the palm tree “phoenix” and “phoenicia” on the Syrian Coast and they believed that the Phoenicians had a significant role in spreading its agriculture. The earliest mention of the palm tree is found

in the Odyssey of Homer when Odysseus described the palm tree in the Island of Delos. Herodotus mentioned palm in Babylonia and the various benefits of both the dates and the trees themselves. Strabo in his Geography numerates the advantages of the palm and said that the Palms were planted in Europe, but they do not bear the ripened dates because of the weather, the dates need hot climate to ripen.
Pliny the Elder narrates detailed accounts on the Palms and methods of growing and he mentioned 49 kinds of dates. The representation of Palms in the arts is limited and in accidental way. However, Palms were depicted on coins and on few representations.

The Route of Alexander the Great to Gaugamela

Ansam Zuhair Khudur

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 25-56
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170119

The research highlights Alexander's the Great march to the east and the battles he fought with the Achaemenid king Darius III, and in particular, the Battle of Gaugamela that took place in the upper parts of Mesopotamia in the area confined between the Tigris river and the mountain highlands in the east of it, which was mentioned by ancient writers as "Gaugamela", located in the plain of Arbela. As well as The study discussed the paths that led Alexander the Great to the battlefield  and the path that Alexander the Great followed after defeating his opponent, reaching Babylon, and then heading to the Indus valley. Thus, he established a great empire.

Study in the Bronze Head of the Akkadian Revealed in Nineveh

Hussein Dhahir Hammood

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 57-78
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170120

 One of the most outstanding Akkadian metal sculptures is the so called ''Bronze Head'' discovered in Nineveh. This elaborate highly

polished work of art is a remarkable work bearing witness to the Akkadian sculptor's long expenence which is full of life and delicate senses. One can say that the sculptor laid through this work the foundation of the oldest sculpture school in the world.
The Bronze Head reflects an image of a royal character, there are many opinions  of  researchers about return to Šarru-kin (Sargon) the founder of the Akkadian dynasty, or to one of his sons or grandsons.
Some pieces of evidence collected from the available artistic samples are presented in this reading to prove the attribution of the Bronze Head to king Šarru-kin( Sargon) of Akkad. The reading elaborates on the style of achieving this work and the characteristics which make the audience feel its liveliness. Indeed, these characteristics clearly express the deeply-rooted charm of the sculpture and reflect the skill of the sculptor in treating, casting and engraving the solid metal of bronze into a hollow bullion.

Development of Altyn Köprü (Pirdi) in the light of new Archaeological and Historical Research

Narmin Ali Muhammad Amin

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 79-95
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170121

Based on a thorough archaeological and historical research, this paper traces the development of Altyn Köprü (Pirdi), the city situated on the islet in the river of Little Zab, from its presumed Assyrian origin  until the 19th century. The study draws from a rich data set obtained from in-depth analysis of historical satellite imagery and the archaeological field survey conduced by the Czech Archaeological Mission in Iraqi Kurdistan (project Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia – Mulinem) between 2013 and 2014, in coperation with archaeologists from Salahaddin University Arbil and Inspectorate of Antiquities Kirkuk. Historical travel literature and photographs, as well as Ottoman drawings and plan documentation enabled us to trace in detail the origin and development of the townʼs landmarks – the bridges that once connected the islet with the south and north banks of the river. The last phase of the Ottoman bridges (demolished in 1918) can be dated, according to our analysis, sometime before 1736 and their remnants are still visible in the ground, together with traces of older bridges of unknown date. Furthermore, we argue that the town underwent a complete transformation of urban structure, street network, and architectural appearance between the 16th and 20th century.

Tattoos are a manifestation of the ancient Mesopotamian heritage

Abbas Abed Mandeel

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 97-129
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170122

The Tattoo knows as an art as a symbol of many concepts, and it been used for means, Purposes with meaning for natures. Although it is not a exclusive to one country or civilization However, it remains linked in one way or a mother to the culture if its own society. The tattoo is a form of a

popular artistic expression, linked with inherited customs and tradition, which is less interest in the Islamic culture in particular.
The tattoo spreads aesthetic hate and striking call for contemplation among the Iraqi tribes at both regions, the north and south, and it been used in different places of the body. Although, some believe that the tattooing is a disgrace, while it is widely used by tribes and in several regions, it is one of most important means of adornment for women in particular.

Mesopotamian Dome – Bakhdeda dome as a Model

Mazin Zara

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 131-163
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170123

The dome is one of the most important architectural elements throughout the ages. Its discovery is an architectural revolution, being the most important among the architectural and construction techniques. Although there are several archaeological evidences of the contribution of the Mesopotamian civilization to this important innovation, so far the Mesopotamian dome theory has not been clarified and studied in detail; since there are no domes existing from antiquity, and because of the lack of enough accurate information about it. The researcher tries to investigate archaeological evidence about the contribution of Mesopotamia to the creation of the dome with a special technology using brick rows, which was the main building material. The researcher also answers fundamental questions, including, what is the Mesopotamian dome theory? Did the dome continue to be used somewhere? In which site of Mesopotamia was did it continue to be used? Where is this site?

Unpublished Economic Akkadian Texts In The Iraq Museum

Luay Saea

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 165-183
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170124

        The cuneiform texts of the Akkadian period show a number of developmentsIn  economic   affairs, including  the  expansion  of  agricultural land and the diversity of agricultural  crops  This is because of  the  fertile  and plentiful pastures in the  region  as well as the  development of  methods , This  has helped  to  increase the surplus of agricultural production and the devlopment of  industrial crafts and   Increasing   interest in raising animals and their products and achieving surplus  production for  commercial purposes  as well on the expansion of trade exchanges as a result of large military conquests.   
The reserach consists of  the photocopies of these cuneiform texts  with  their original   photos  followed by a bibliography of  Arabic and  English soueces and an abstract in  English.

The singer's manuscript in abbreviating Al-Tawtea's BookA Grammar of the Samaritan Language (A study and Investigation)

Hashim Taha Raheem Alzubeedy

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 185-204
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170125

The singer's book Al-Muġniya fī iḫtiṣār at-tawṭi’a,is by Eleazar Ben Pinḥas b. Yūsuf, different in its arrangement and subject than the book of Tawtea in the grammar of Hebrew and Samaritan languages by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim B. farag As-samiri, whereas the author of the singer's book had added some corrections that he suggested to the Book of Al-Tawtea. We are trying in this paper to present a study and investigate the manuscript of the book of Tawtea that is called " the singer inabbreviating the Tawtea" that had written as texts which is known in Semitic linguistics (Arabic- Samaritan), that had narrated in both languages, The Hebrew and the Samaritan. These literal outputs that had  uttered at the middles ages ( Bilingual ) written by the Samaritan sect at the field of language, literature, Jurisprudence, Mosaic Act regarding the Samaritan doctrine.
The purpose of this paper is to make a Universal investigation and comparison between the two copies of the singer's book in abbreviating Al-Tawtea by the Priest author Al-Azer Bin Fanhass, we have obtained the first copy from University of Lidan's library in Holland, and the second copy from Saint Petersburg which indicates the importance of this book in Hebrew and Samaritan language, in addition to a linguistic study.

Handicraft decorations (arabesque)-past,present and future-Syria as amodel

Munther Abdul-Moneim Muhammad Yunus Al-Taie

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 205-238
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170126

Arabesque is on of the authentic historical arts that bear among its decorative collections many images of conscience by the artisan artist in our Islamic world ,and thus it is a decorative style called delicate geometric designs and simple abstract plant inscriptions with intersecting ,balanced and repeated twists, and these inscriptions are used in gilding ,making ceramics and weaving carpets .Sculpture, engraving and trail..etc.,and this art reached the apogee of its greatness and prosperity during the period of prosperity of the Umayyad Caliphate in the Levant ,thus skilled craftsmen emerged who excelled in this field and were able to transfer it to other countries through their distinguished and elaborate products until it reached Uriya and many other countries, and you can notice in our time the works of artists Syria plastic artists who were able to link their artworks between the past and the present, a conservative one Including them on the authentic Arab Islamic heritage.

Two New Cuneiform Texts from Iri-Sağrig Including Akkadian Formulas

Ali Mohammed Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 239-253
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170127

This study concerns two unpublished confiscated cuneiform texts kept in the Iraq Museum belong to Ur III period (2112 – 2002) B.C.E. (IM. 235570); (IM.235558 ). Although, the texts belong to Ur III period, they contain Akkadian formulas. The subject of these texts is an oath in the name of the king by herdsmen of bulls and donkeys.