Issue 2

Palm Trees in the Arts of Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 3-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169564

Iraqis through the periods considered Palm trees the most generous not only for their grandeur and lofty. They produce dates of variegated types which is considered one of the important nutrients for sustainable human life because it contains the essentials for healthy life. In the initial phase, the Iraqi artists drew on their pottery simple bands similar to a palmette but as they progressed, the style was developed during Protoliterate period (the Early Sumerian) and the best example is the Votive Vase from Warka. Then cluster of dates started to appear on the Votive Plaques and on cylinder seals. Few examples of palms appear on cylinder seals from the Akkadian period. Gudea appears with the tree. Ur-namu in his well known stele pour sacred water on a palm. From tell Al-Rimah (Old Karana) palm trunks in mud-bricks were used as attached decorative columns, The palace of Zimri-lim in Mari was adorned with painting of the blessed tree. The Assyrians considered the palm trees blessed, holy, and sacred, and their kings themselves paid great attention in depicting themselves with the palms. The concept of the significant of the palms as sacred identity continued and reached the city of Hatra which mentioned its heritage of the older Mesopotamian period. The palms were depicted with both the gods and humans.

Lights on the Royal Edicts from Old Babylonian Period Analytical Study

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169565

This study sheds light on the royal edicts issued in the Late Old Babylonian Period, specifically from the era of the reign of the Babylonian king Ammi - Saduqa (1646-1626 BC), which are orders and instructions issued by this king to treat the deteriorating economic conditions in an instant and fast manner. And it seems that these royal edicts represent a special permit or legislative regulation that has been widely popular since the second part of the Old Babylonian Period (2002-1595) B.C.

Some of Caravan Route Cities and Road Stations Throughout Ancient And Islamic History in the Light of Cuneiform Texts and Arabic Sources

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 95-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169566

Most modern-time and extinct medieval caravanserais relatively belong to the ancient periods of human civilization. They were Usually chosen in particular spots along major trade routes, some of these caravansaries have acquired special significance in Mesopotamia that they have been considered one of the most important focal points of reference in the field of trade Geography and Trade History studies. These caravansaries used to provide trading caravans with vital logistic and economic services needful throughout the caravans’ passage and camping along the desert. Among the various services these caravansaries usually offer are the provision of water, food and other travel necessities such as medical and mail services, beside supplying the caravans with guides, scouts and routes experts (khabir). Some of these caravansaries ((wikalat or Khanat) have later expanded so as to become trading towns along the trade routes which prospered in the ancient Near East in general and in Mesopotamia in particular which gave rise to some famous silk road, besides incense and spices routes.

Tamarisk Tree in Light of Cuneiform References

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 133-160
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169567

Those who observe the Mesopotamian civilization will find that this civilization has several components, foremost of which stands the diversity in many of its civilization fields, whether on the architectural, artistic or written level, as well as the richness and abundance in the entirety of its data, and perhaps a civilization extended in its roots since man inhabited the north of Mesopotamia until The Islamic ages are worthy to stand at the top of the hierarchical hierarchy of the rest of the other civilizations in terms of originality and antiquity, and this civilization was characterized by several characteristics, the most important of which is its impact on the rest of other civilizations from which multiple civilization fields have been borrowed, such as writing and the rest of other sciences. Researchers have always delved into the vocabulary of this civilization and have written many books and researches that dealt with its multiple colors and are still trying to decipher the secrets and secrets of what remained unclear from them. For the overall image of this civilization to be integrated. One of the important vocabulary of the civilization of Mesopotamia, which it is important to highlight is an important tree that the cuneiform texts dealt with great importance, namely the tamarisk tree, and through the first extrapolation of the information related to this tree, we find that it has occupied an important place in the thought and belief of the people of Mesopotamia, especially with regard to It is related to the medical aspect of it, as the cuneiform texts dealt with many benefits of this tree and entered many medicinal formulations for treating diseases at that time, in the Islamic ages, the famous doctor Ibn al-Bitar mentioned the great medicinal benefits of this tree, as it was used in many medical treatments. Through the foregoing, we find it important to shed light on this tree, the places in which it is grown, the uses mentioned in the cuneiform texts, and everything related to it, depending mainly on the various information contained in the ancient cuneiform writings about this tree.

The Achievements of Prehistoric Human in Iraqi Kurdistan and Manifestations of his Civilization Until the End of the Upper Paleolithic

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-186
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169568

The land of Kurdistan was distinguished by variations in terrain, environment and climate. The natural and climatic characteristics had a great influence in creating environments suitable for settlement. This helped to provide the basic necessities for living and its sources of water, plants and animals. It provided a home for early hunters and collectors of food to benefit from the rich environment resources. This led to the emergence of the first signs of the human pioneers, and the oldest evidence of human settlement in this area was found at the Burdat Balka site in the form of axes and shrapnel. The discovery of remnants of many civilized materials in the open and caves of the region, most of which contain stone tools for hunting activities. Indicates that hunting was a basic pattern of economic life for the first human groups during the ancient stone ages. The Shanidar Cave is one of the ancient caves within the northwestern extension of the Zagros Mountains, which was settled by humans during the Paleolithic period due to the suitability of the climatic condition of the cave site and the richness of the region with livelihoods and with springs and streams and the availability of hunting animals. This will deal with extensive research in order to contribute to giving a clear picture of the distinguished role of this region in the record of human civilization.

Urban Activities in Indian Ports

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 187-204
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169588

The study aims to identify the urban activities in the Indian ports of all kinds, and the role that those activities played in the prosperity of the economic movement in those ports, through what was provided by services to the local population and the commercial communities and merchants coming to these ports, as these urban aspects at that time represented an important part of the civilization of India, the research focused on the architectural materials used in construction at the time, and the urban aspects of their various types, whether religious, civil or military, and we have clarified the role of each part of those aspects in the development, prosperity and permanence of the economic movement in the Indian subcontinent in general.

Appearances of Cleanliness in the Hittite Society

Hani Abdulgani Abdullah

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 205-221
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169589

The contents of the Hittite texts and the evidence of the archaeological survey in many of the sites covered by the excavations in the countries of Anatolia reflect the fact that there are indications of the Hittite interest in cleanliness, and that the reasons for this interest were not limited to the importance of cleanliness, as it reflects an actual need for all members of society, rulers and ruled, in order to preserve not any the manifestations of cleanliness and the creation of a healthy, clean environment, but also extended to be part of the content of the religious rituals and rituals that oblige individuals to this concern and push them to adhere to cleanliness in general From this standpoint, the research idea crystallized to highlight this important aspect of the Hittite civilization, because it has a direct relation to the daily lives of individuals and their religious beliefs, and the research included four aspects of the manifestations of cleanliness, the first axis dealt with the concept of cleanliness, and the second axis dealt with personal hygiene and included, Washing, nails, hair, shaving and cleaning clothes, the third axis dealt with cleanliness of places and included, cleanliness of temples, cleanliness of ovens and kitchens, water pool, and cleanliness of alleys and streets, while the fourth axis dealt with cleaning materials and included, water, plants and herbs, and the research appended to a conclusion that included a number of conclusions , As well as some illustrations.

The (Gt) Stem in the Akkadian Language a Semantic and Morphological Study Comparing between Hebrew and Arabic languages

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 223-250
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169590

The Akkadian language is rich in many forms, including the GT form. These two symbols refer to two meanings in foreign languages, especially English (G) meaning (gerund) and (t) represent the augmenting on the basic formula, the formula (Gt) is a natural product born from the womb of the need to expand the meanings, so when the basic formula does not meet or fails to perform a specific connotation , linguists resort to the augmenting to fill the deficiency, it is believed that these are characteristics of the mother's tongue , the Akkadian language is thus no different from its sisters from the same language family. The choice of the subject was based on the necessity to get acquainted with this form and clarify the ambiguity surrounding it, especially since it shares the same form of the perfect verb, as the past tense (Gt) has the same morphological shape that shows the perfect,(iptaras), they both take the same form, but the intention is different , So the perfect form expresses a specific time, while the formula (Gt) has other functions that differ from the formulas of perfection. Hence the need to clarify this formula and delve into it. The researcher in ancient languages and the cuneiform reader cannot predict the meaning from the formula itself, so the study came to clarify the ambiguity facing researchers in the field of translation, as well as to know some of the secrets of this formula based on the texts, to be the decisive factor in explaining what they are, and the comparison approach helps the student to draw attention to other languages to understand some common linguistic aspects.

A Study of The Sumerian Term NIG2-KAS7.. AK (Balanced Account)In The Texts of The Third Millennium B.C

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 251-269
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169591

The ancient Iraqis left us, through cuneiform tablets, important archives of records of economic activity, which are a fertile and open field for research and study. Among the most important of these are the accounting records in which the Sumerian term (nig2-kas7..ak) is mentioned and translated by researchers as "balanced account" or "budget accounts". This term has great importance in the context of the interpretation of the economy of ancient Iraq, especially in the texts of the end of the third millennium BC. Therefore, this study came to show its linguistic, administrative and cultural importance.

The Sickle Industry Developed In Ancient Iraq During The Mesolithic To The End Of Chalcolithic

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 271-287
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169592

During the Prehistoric period, Human is used tools that helped him in the process of cutting plants or hunting animals, and then he developed his tools in a manner suitable for their use and became a variety, and among those tools is the sickle that he used even after emergence of agriculture. It continued to be used despite the different available raw materials throughout the chronology ages. Sickles began to be used since the stone ages before the emergence of agriculture until now. As for the industry materials for the blade, it was made according to the availability of raw materials, including bones and types of stones during the stone ages, and then the clay was used during the Ubaid period, and this is according to what the excavations revealed in the archaeological sites.