Issue 1

From Epics of Kings in the Second and First Millennium B.C. An Analytical Study

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169554

The Assyrian epics reflect a number of topics, the foremost of which
are the achievements of the kings, their invasions, and their wars for peace,
the stabilization of borders, the strengthening of their armies, and the
preservation of their trade routes. All these topics were very important in the
developing the human and spiritual thinking , because the nature of man in 
Mesopotamia is concerned with the origin of existence, life, death, battles,
immortality, justice, good and evil, and other things that fall within his
human society. In this topic, we will deal with five epics, which are as
follows: First: between the lands of Babylon and Assyria, Tukulti-Ninurta I,
second: the revolution of the palace, Adad-Shuma- Uusr Third: To Urartu,
Shalmaneser III, Fourth: Your forgiveness, marduk, Emile-Marduk, Fifth:
Oh The king, live forever, Nabo Palasar.

The Ransom in Akkadian Texts

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 21-44
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169555

Social phenomena were common in the societies of the ancient Orient and continued over time until the modern era, including the phenomenon of ransom, linked to a situation in which there was a forced kidnapping, then the demand for ransom in the form of a sum of money to release the kidnapped, and it usually occurs in societies in which the ruling political power weakens or collapses, Then groups outside the laws and customs appear, and are active in the periphery areas, where they resort to killing, kidnapping, looting and theft. Ransom was known in the Akkadian language as ipṭi/erum, and the phenomenon spread during the second millennium B.C, in many separate areas of the ancient Orient (northern Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Canaan), so what are its causes, how were its procedures and payment of the required sum and what is its relation to the situation Social and political, and what is the position of the rulers of it? This is what the research tries to clarify by presenting the Akkadian textual evidence that indicated or documented the case of the ransom, and then extrapolated it to extract general information related to it.

Assyrian's Concerns of Fear and Anxiety Regarding Demons and Evil Spirits.

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 45-70
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169556

Since ancient times, the Assyrians believed that there are occult powers and a world of evil spirits and demons represented by evil gods that cause concern and spread fear and dread in the souls of the population by sending tribulations and diseases to people. All of this was made clear by many texts and monuments that were discovered, therefore, they followed many methods and ways that were reflected in their behaviors, to get rid of their harm, this was represented in following several religious rituals, including prayers, advancement, and casting religious spells, in addition to the expiation rituals of Namburbe NAMBÚR-BI that have a religious and magical nature to keep away the evil, and as they came up with the idea of sheltering spirits, Shido and Mason, represented by the winged bulls that were placed at the city gates, entrances to palaces and small statues that were placed in the foundations of the walls and floors of rooms.

Sivas City before the Seljuk Rule

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 71-91
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169557

The city of Sivas is one of the major cities in Anatolia, but the lack of historical sources that spoke about that city did not highlight its importance, in addition to that in terms of importance and area comes second only to the mother capital (Konya), and thus formed a distinct location for the countries of Anatolia on The launch, where its distinguished position on the line of armies, made it the focus of all powers in controlling it, and thus its control over all countries of Asia.

Russian Excavations in Sinjar Region, Northern Iraq

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 93-114
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169569

Russian excavations have played an important role during the sixties in discovering Hassuna civilization in the north of Mesopotamia; which helped to study and enrich our knowledge of different types of settlement in the most ancient agricultural site in the north-west of Mesopotamia. The excavation mission had chosen the series of Yarem tappeh hill as site for excavation, which came with great results. It discovered the remains of buildings known later as the " Tholoi" in addition to many other discoveries. This paper sheds light on these excavations and shows the results reached.

Residential Houses from the Moncorn Assyrian Period (911-612) BC. M- Elected Sites from the Makhul Dam Project Area

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 115-137
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169570

The architecture of residential houses is one of the achievements and civilization that reflects part of the daily life of the society, as well as the civilized and architectural aspect of the inhabitants of the region and at the same time reflects the human mechanism of the possibilities and development of civilization as well as economic potentialities, and the natural resources and how to benefit from those resources, in addition to the raw material used in the construction and the extent of its appropriateness with nature. has been chosen the building of residential houses in the area of the project of the Makhul Dam project in the neo Assyrian period. To be the title of this research, especially that the sites of this area belonging to this time period of the history of Iraq have not yet been studied in full, and of those sites is Tel Maramos 1, Tall al-Fars, Tall al-Dagh, Tall al-Zab, and that the in these settlements of construction remains and archaeological finds indicates that they were important settlements of the neo Assyrian period, these building remains are very important, as they provided us with information on the building of residential houses in the northern region of the neo Assyrian period.

Heritage Mosques in Sinjar City

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 139-164
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169596

The field study of Sinjar city shows that it includes two traditional heritage mosques , the first is the Sinjar Great Mosque, located in the Saray neighborhood in the center of Sinjar city, which made it the same distance to all sides of the city, the fact that made it very easy to all worshipers to access it easily , It is considered the second oldest mosque in the city, after the mosque that was built in the Atabic era (559 AH  1181 AD), And there is nothing left of it except its minaret known as the minaret of Sinjar, during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II, during the rule of the Ottoman Empire over Iraq, the general planning of this mosque is the same as the traditional planning of Islamic mosques as it consists of a prayer house and a backside In the middle of an open courtyard, the mosque has one main entrance to its northern side. As for the second heritage mosque which was named after its builder's name (Taha Al-Hassan), it is located in the northeastern part of Barshi neighborhood located in the north of Sinjar city. It was built according to different architectural styles, and it is considered one of the hanging mosques that rise above the surface of the earth. The building of the prayer house was on a group of shops which did not include skylines because there are no columns that divide the prayer house.

Carbonated Grains and it's Role in Archaeological Detection during Prehistory – An Analytical Study

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 165-185
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169558

Grains in general and Carbonated in particular, were of great importance and importance in old addition to the large nutritional value of grains for human and animals, their importance in food consumption and life and their wealth of great importance and role in food insurance growth and stability the resulting result and its role in the agricultural economy which represented one of its main pillars and elements. Grains, mainly carbonated whose remains are old periods of time, which were found in most archaeological sites in many regions of the ancient world represented an important and large source of information on disburse detection, especially in the sites for the time of the passage of the right of the date which constituted an important element of information in that period when there are no written sources. The information provided by the Carbonated grains was extremely important in identifying the archaeological sites whose remnants and remnants were found and the environments, climatic and living conditions that this information reflected on them for the researchers in the archaeological field as well as the agricultural field for botany. From this standpoint, the idea of the research, it's subject and it's main aspects came. The research included: a review and clarification of the of Carbonated grains as a source of information for prehistoric sites. The second included: a review of samples of Carbonated grains discovered in prehistoric sites and their implications. We have relied in our study of research and supported on a number of specialized sources that we deal with it's valuable information in the research with analysis and scrutiny and conclusions accordingly in accordance with what is the subject and it's content and the scientific truth on which the research is based and it's results and content.

The Efforts of Scientific Families in Building Schools and Teaching (Ibn Al-Jawzi Family as a Model)

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 187-212
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169559

The scientific families are considered one of the most important part of the Islamic civilization, and its activity was in the civilizations in which it appeared. The research aims to reveal the impact of the of Ibn Al-Jawzi family on scientific life during the sixth and seventh A.H / twelfth and thirteenth centuries by highlighting the contributions of the family in the scientific aspect of teaching in the schools belonging to the Hanafi and Hanbali schools of thirteen schools are distributed in Baghdad and the Levant, as well as the schools that the family members have built, There are two schools, one in Baghdad and the other in the Bilad alSham, both of which are named (Al-Jawziyya School), in addition to the role of these schools in graduating number of scientists who had a clear impact, basically on the delivered science.

Motives behind the Mummification of Animals by the Ancient Egyptians

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 213-233
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169560

The ancient Egyptians mummified animals for they belief that they were of a sacred status. Despite that hadn’t been worshipping those animals, they sanctified them for their symbolic significance in which they believed would bring them closer to the deity. Even though, those animal deities had been nothing but embodied appearance or a symbol of divine powers, but the ancient Egyptians believed mummification would fill the place with blessings, protection and they would avail of them in the afterlife as food and enjoyment as it was the case in the earthly life.

The Brick Completion Receipts from the City of Pekasi, "Till Abu-Antik" “An Analytical Study of Unpublished Cuneiform Texts”

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 235-261
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169561

Between the finds discovered in the city of Pekasi and currently preserved in the treasuries of the Iraqi Museum was numbers of small tablet, its dimensions usually not exceeding three centimeters, with a dark black color, often invisible to the cuneiform signs written on it, all of it discovered during the excavations in Pekasi, "Till Abu-Antik" during five seasons. It seems that most of the tablets under study in this research belong to one person named (d MAR.TU-i-bi),that is meaning his own archive, as he hired workers in the Brick industry from different people, and it seems that he needed a large number of bricks, where we notice that he hired workers to manufacture brick throughout the month of July. The manufacture of bricks was of great importance from old Babylonian Period, as important information in this field reached us through cuneiform texts. It seems to us that these texts are daily diaries of ( d MAR.TU-i-bi), as we note that most of the texts of the study in this research date back to different days of The month of (July), without any indication of the duration of the lease or the materials received in return for their rent. In addition, it shows the urban movement witnessed by the city of Bekasi. As for the history of these texts that we have studied in this research, they go back to the twenty-fifth year (1724 BC) of the reign of King Samsu-iluna (1749-1712 BC).

Unpublished Economic Texts from Ur III Dynasty

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 263-279
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169562

The various cuneiform texts dated back to Ur ш dynasty (2112_ 2004B.C) this period have varied greatly in the knowledge of many aspects of Mesopotamia , and economic texts are one of the most important types of economic circulation and the most common in the Ur ш dynasty as economic texts formed the vast majority of those texts, the thing that indicates the prosperity of the increasing economic activity in this period as it provided us with information about the political conditions that the Ur ш dynasty underwent at that time and which ultimately led to its demise .

Demons and Evil Spirits in Ancient Iraq in Light of Cuneiform Texts

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 281-302
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169563

The civilization of ancient Iraq was distinguished by its religious beliefs from its inception until late periods. This was reflected in different aspects of life, including belief in the influence of spiritual forces, which are divided into the forces of good and evil. These forces were known since ancient times and developed over time with the development of ancient Iraqi beliefs, until they acquire in the first millennium BC. It takes an advanced position in the ancient Iraqi thought and belief, so that this was reflected in the mention of these powers in cuneiform texts such as texts of incantations, incantations and exorcisms, or in myths and other texts, or in the inscription of their forms on carvings and seals, inscriptions, statues and various monuments, or in finding ways to expel these Evil forces, as in the forms of sentinel compound at the entrances to palaces or temples to expel their harmful effects. This study deals with the spiritual forces of evil such as demons and evil spirits, based on cuneiform texts and some of their effects that were reflected in the behavior of society as a whole.