Issue 2

Akkadian Formulas in a New Cuneiform Text from Ur III Period Kept in the Iraqi Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169594

This is a study of  confiscated text by Iraq Museum (IM.235545).It is a grazing contract of three shepherds , to care for young bulls and donkeys ;which depend on milk and fodder in feeding and need good care by the shepherds to prevent their death. This text belongs to the second year of the reign of the Sumerian king Abi-Suen (2028-2002) B.C. It is a unique text because it belongs to Ur III period but it contains several Akkadian verbal formulaes and it probably belongs to the Sumerian city Iri-saĝrig.

Epilepsy in the Cuneiform Sources in Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 17-38
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169595

Epidemics and diseases have spread in Mesopotamia throughout the historical periods, for many reasons, for example, the religious and magic reasons, such as, gods wrath, magic and sorcery activities, and demons, or environmental causes, such as, air and water pollution, or because of the spread of insects and lesions, or disasters, like flood and destruction of cities.etc.., that cause diseases, because of pollution and starvation, moreover, wars and invasions, and the subsequent deterioration of the social and environmental situation, and even health condition, Moreover, economic situation. Infection and the speed that causes diseases, and other preseasons. Cuneiform sources and archaeological excavations were very popular in our knowledge of medicine, those texts mentioned a number of the names of diseases, their reasons, diagnose, and treatments. Our knowledge about medicine increased throughout the historical periods of Mesopotamia until it became very detailed in the first millennium BC. Among the diseases diagnosed by the Mesopotamian doctors is epilepsy.

Qishla Mazne (A Field Study)

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 39-60
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169571

This field research deals with one of the important barrack was (Qishla) in the Mergasor district in the Erbil governorate, this barrack not studied before, not dealt with in the previous studies. In this paper, we discussed the remaining architecture of the barrack and its plan, the origin of its name and its history, and we compared it with the other barracks(Qishlas) in the neighboring districts. As well we mentioned a brief history of barracks/Qishlas and their plans.

Structural Elements of Heritage Architecture in Northern Iraq

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 61-94
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169572

Historical documentation of the formative elements of heritage house architecture in the northern Iraq is of fundamental and significant importance in assessing the architectural product that has suffered from neglect and vandalism for decades and has not been given sufficient architectural and documentary studies, and to cover holistic knowledge in the field of structural elements of heritage house architecture in Iraqi Kurdistan in the twentieth century on the intellectual level, this research was an attempt to study it as an intellectual wealth that must be rehabilitated to develop the Iraqi society culturally, economically and environmentally.

Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Ur III Period (2112-2004 B.C) in Suleimaniya Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 95-112
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169573

The research dealt with the study, analysis and translation of four unpublished cuneiform texts from the third dynasty of Ur. The texts belong to the Museum of Suleimaniya. The history of the texts came back to the time of the two kings Šu-Suen (2029-2037 BC) and Ibi-Suen (2028-2004 BC) and that's based on the historical formulas that are mentioned in the texts. The contents is about the delivery receipts- to distribute a group of sheep and grain which was used in the manufacture of bread.

The Adverbial Suffix (-iš ) In Ancient Iraqi Languages and its Impacts On Modern Iraqi Dialects

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 113-130
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169574

This search deals with Ancient Iraqi Languages : ( Sumerian and Akkadian ) , especially in the phonetic grammar. We have tried in accordance to the information accessible to us to follow the origins of the adverbial suffix \-iš\ in the ancient Iraqi languages including Sumerian, which is the oldest written in the world, that we found an origin to this adverbial suffix in the Sumerian language, so we aimed to identify the semantic of the suffix and its origin in order to get understand the interpretation in the Akkadian language and its dialects : ( Babylonian, Assyrian ) . On the other side we found the impact of the adverbial suffix \-iš\ in the modern Arabic Iraqi dialects with ancient Iraqi languages, especially in some words which ends in this suffix in which we found co-authenticز

Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Ur III Period about Animals

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 131-154
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169575

The archaeological sites in Iraq was exposed to illegal digging and looting which resulted in the extraction of large numbers of cuneiform texts and smuggling them abroad including Iri-sag̃ rig texts .The scholar (David I. Owen) had studied collection of texts amounted (1159) text in (Nisaba 15) volume .In this research, we studied (4) economic texts confiscated by Iraq Museum concerning animals and were dated in the 42 year of Šulgi to the 2 year of Ibī-suen reign ,the texts dated back to (Iri-sag̃ rigki ).

Inscriptions of Mosul Mosques Mihrabs during Ottoman Period: A study of selected samples

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 155-184
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169577

Most of Mosul's mosques mihrabs are characterized by written inscriptions of ribbon shape which decorated the Mihrabs fronts, or ornamented the upper part other mihrabs; or on the interior of mihrabs. the meaning of those Inscriptions vary between Quranic Ayahs. In addition to from conjoin phrases of a monotheism. Similarly, name of the four caliphs were also Inscription was done by the Al-thuluth Calligraphy in tow methods, Ibn Albawaab and Al Mustasimi and Jaly Al thuluth. The writer chose Al-thuluth calligraphy because it characterized by flexibility and softness of the writing tracks on which they write.

Animals on the Scenes of the Neo Sumerian Arts

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 185-202
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169578

In this research we review the pictures of the most important types of animals dating back to the new Sumerian period , as well as scenes of animals carried on the works of art, which is one of the most important sources of information in the subject of research. Various forms of animal types , such as bulls, lions, horses, etc., have been carried out on artistic works according to the rules and expressions of the design of the scenes, which emerged through the adopted models that depicted the plant and animal environment in which man lived. In addition, the scenes of these animals represent the importance of the history of the presence of these animals and their types on the land of Iraq. The research also highlights the most important scenes of animals dating back to the Sumerian period in order to know the artistic features and method of implementation of these artistic scenes. Is of great importance in old art in general and Sumerian art in particular based on what is available in the discovered evidence . On the other hand, this research aims at shedding light on the skill of the Sumerian artist in the implementation of works of art very accurately resulting from the accumulation of experience and communication across generations to a peak in the subsequent arts, as well as the elimination of monotony and space on the surfaces of those models concerned, and that these works – reflect an important civilization phase that has had a clear impact and we can infer this from some of the elected and implemented models on the relevant artistic scenes.

From the Sharqati Excavators : Salih Ahmed Al-Hamedha and his brother Mohammad Served the archeological Excavations in Iraq

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 203-236
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169579

The research deals with the archeological biography of two of the most skilled technicians and Al-Sharqati excavators, the most prominent of them are the late Salih Ahmed Al-Hamedha and before him his brother Mohammad Ahmed Al-Hamedha, who worked in the excavation and maintenance of Iraqi antiquities since they were young children and died and on them the dust of work, and we will show in the research how they are involved in archaeological work, and the first sites The archeology in which they worked, whether in excavations of Islamic cities such as Wasit, Kufa, and Samarra, Islamic cities, or in the plains flooded by major irrigation projects, or in other archeological cities including Nineveh and Hatra, as well as discussing the opinion of some of their fellow archaeologists who worked with them and their fellows, and among them The late Dr. Behnam Abu al-Soof, and Professor Dr. Jaber Khalil Ibrahim, in addition to their support and assistance to many graduate students, especially what Salih Al-Hamedha provided to students of primary and higher studies who wished to study the effects of urban art and its arts, and the void created by their death in the work of excavation missions Then we list a list of Arab and foreign sources that we collected through our readings, whether in Sumer magazine or the books written by Iraqi archaeologists. We have been keen to include it, in order to document the biography of my generous father and uncle in the archaeological fieldز