Issue 2


Transliteration and Analysis (Verification) of the Cuneiform Text

Khalid Ismael

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 3-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164564

The ideas mentioned in This Research show the methods of
documenting and analyzing ; published and unpublished cuneiform texts ;
and the way of solving the problems appear through the process of
verifying and publishing the cuneiform texts . It contains many answers to
the inquiries that faces those who study the cuneiform texts . Many
important things are dealt in this research such as :the aims behind
transliterating( reading ) and analyzing the texts , the followed conceptions
in publishing them , and their suitability to be studied or not. 

The Etiquette of Eating and Drinking among the Ancient Egyptians

Hussein Hammood; Hievy Sabri Jamel

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 21-46
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2020.164565

The nature of Egypt provided people with different types of foods. Besides meat and fish consumed in large quantities by the ancient Egyptian, the nature also provided them with different vegetables, fruits, wheat and beans. The ancient Egyptians also made bread considered main food from which different types of other food were made. They also knew how to make pies, sweets as well as dates, honey, and milk. They also knew fruits such as apples, pomegranates and vegetables including garlic, onions and celery. They also knew the beverage industry and made beer from barley and wine from grapes. Wine was always used as a sacrificial offering to the gods, a rite of worship, a sacrosanct ritual of worship, an appeasement of the angry idols, and making them feel happy. Wine was also used on in celebrations and religious holidays. They used to have three meals a day. Sometimes, food was served on two meals: the main meal was in the afternoon, the second was served in the evening. Food was served in pots placed on a table higher than the ground from which food dishes were carved. They also used to have food with their hands. That is why they used to wash their hands before and after eating. ا

Cities and Geographical Sites attributed to Plants’ Names in the light of Cuneiform and Historical Sources

Amir ِAl-Jumaili; Mu’ayad ِAl-Dulaimi

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 47-88
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164566

Many of ancient Near East’s villages, cities and other geographical sites, of whom we have heard through cuneiform texts and historical sources, got their names from origins and sources derived from the plant and plant life that characterized those places and spread its goodness in. The availability of that certain resource or natural and environmental source, granted those places a functional role that had led to the emergence and prosperity of services and economic activities reflected in the vicinity of these places and their centers. As a result, the population of those places professed occupations based primarily on that natural source to get their living and produce local products.

Human Feelings and their reflection on the official speech in the Assyrian Kingdom

Safwan Saeed; Yasir Hussein

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 89-124
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164567

     Since the creation of God human being deposited in the secrets of his creation of the feelings and feelings of the advantage of his creativity all the phenomenon of his behavior and his impressions and emotional reactions to others. Despite the diversity of affiliations in humans and differentiation in their attitudes and the nature of their religions and beliefs and languages ​​and their countries, but they share their emotions and feelings, Feelings reflect the images of events and people on the psyche of the human being, as he faces what pleases him and what makes him sad and those who relax him and those who upset him and what pleases him and what angers him in the features of his face and through his conversations, making him more active and active in the organization of community relations
    In view of the importance of feelings in expressing the man's desires and the thoughts he has in determining the truth of his actions towards others, we have studied the types of feelings embodied in the official personality of the individual in the Assyrian Kingdom expressed in his tongue or represented in his actions in a way that contributes to knowledge of nature And the truth of the types of sentiments expressed by the Assyrians in their blogs, whether through the identification of terms or vocabulary that it, or through the analysis of the content of the text

Mental Metaphor in Akkadian Language - A Comparative Study -

Zuheer Dheen Jasim

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 125-140
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164568

        The subject of metal metaphor is considered as an important rhetorical subject in all languages that are connected with the AL- Araba ( semitic ) language . One of them is the Arabic language as it has great space in the mind of rhetorical historians and they consider it as the glory of the language as well as one factor of rhetoric . Therefore , its importance is so obvious to study the mental metaphor in the Akkadian language to clarify the significance of theselanguage ( AL-Ariba ) in studying the rhetorical studies as it was the ancientlanguage ( AL-Ariba ) in the fields of writing . The metaphor is one branch of semantics which is put in to two parts : the conveying metaphor and the mental one which is our main concern in this research paper . One reason why it is named mental metaphor is that it is easy to by understood by the mind of any human being and not from the language itself . Through having the comparative study in studying the mental metaphor in the  Akkadian  language which would be so clear that Akkadian had got the lead in using the mental metaphor and they had been the first to deal with this real rhetorical Art .                           

Impact of Environment on Mesopotamian Economy During Prehistory

Hussein Yousif Hazim

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 141-160
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164569

The environment is one of the most important and fundamental factors and has a direct impact on economic life because of its significant and important implications in defining and mapping aspects of this life and set clear paths and reality. the impact of the environment on the reality of economic life has been associated since ancient periods and its effects have been clearly and clearly revealed. according to the effects and changes of the environment and its direct impact on human life and activities, the foundations and pillars of economic life, which were the main and basic artery of human life. the existence and existence of human life depends mainly on economic life, which was characterized by change and development of the person who lived and relied on it and one the basic and content of the ages and determined their paths and images according to this life. The research examined the general appearance of environment in Mesopotamia and its general characteristics and developments during the prehistoric period since the earliest stone ages we also discussed the impact of natural environment or aspects economic life if Mesopotamia mainly agriculture, industry and trade the impact of the environment on it and its general Path ways especially during the Neolithic period and its after math. We discussed in detail the significant and direct impact on these aspects according to the data and results of research and archaeological evidence climate and environment related to them and the conclusions arising from the analysis and investigation and the results generated by it and draw clear picture on the economy and its aspects during the prehistoric times in Mesopotamia.

Rights of the affected neighbor in the Ancient Iraqi law

Abdulrahman y. Abdulrahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 161-178
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164570

The provisions of the Ancient Iraqi laws concerning the organization of social relations between the members of society, including the relations between neighbors and determining the responsibilities and duties that are incumbent on each of them and protecting the rights of the neighbor in his land, housing, money, reputation and honor, gives a clear perception of the legal thought in organizing social relations and upgrading them for the best And towards building a more cohesive society in its relations among its members According to what is stated in the legal texts, the most harmful reference in the old Iraqi laws were those related to the fields and agricultural lands, and then the psychological and moral damages as well as the financial damage. The legislator took into consideration the criminal responsibility and the right to the injured neighbor, the quality of the damage to the neighbor, In the case of negligence and negligence, the punishment was lighter than in the case of intent and the desire to harm the property of the neighbor or to abuse him by defaming his reputation and the challenge of honor or steal his money or infringement of his rights or otherwise N Other damage.

Legend as a Source for the study of history The legend of Cain and Abel the Biblical model

Mohammad Al-Olamy

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 179-186
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164571

Abstract The researcher studied and analyzed the myth of Cain and Abel from the historical point of view - of civilization, which is the source for the study of history, and found the two forms: pastoral (defending pastoral communities) and agricultural (defending agricultural communities) and appeared at the crossroads two types economists senior, old pastoral economic pattern, and the pattern new agricultural economics, and this myth reflected the conflict between them. 

Common architectural characteristics in the planning and development of the Bimaristan in the Arab and Islamic eras

Akram Mohammed Yahya

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 187-224
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164572

Bimaristan is one of the charitable institutions established by caliphs, ministers, princes and doctors. It serves as charity and services to the public and the private sector of all types, jobs and specialties. Is a place or place to treat patients and shelter them for a long period of treatment. In ancient civilizations, many posters, known as "houses of mercy" in the civilization of Mesopotamia called the Nile Valley, as mentioned in the Persian civilization with the word "Bimaristan" as received from the Greek civilization in the word "Achsendokin" 

In the Islamic era, the Arabs used the word "Bimarstan" in terms of terminology and language, and kept their medical and therapeutic functions as a suitable place and place to treat patients under the supervision of specialized doctors. Developed during the Arab and Islamic periods and continued until the end of the Ottoman era. Known as Dar Al-Shifa, Misha, Bimarkhana, Timarkhana, Shafakhanah, Khosta and Al-Maristan, all of which refer to the meaning of the hospital in its present sense.

Islamic Bimarastiyat, one of the most famous architectural structures built by Muslims in their long history, resembles the rest of other Islamic buildings such as mosques, mosques, schools, the role of science, modernity, communication, sophistication, angles and others. It has become an inherited architectural tradition created by different types / such as Bimarstan, public and private, varies by type of disease and pain

The oldest of Bimarestans are Bimaristan Wars, Bimaristan Blind, Disabled, Disabled, Madmen, Prisoners, Maggots, Elderly, Elderly, Strangers, Orphans, School Students and Institutes. All the Bimaristanis planned on the basis of a distinctive architectural system consisting of a large high wall surrounding all parts of Bimaristan. Large, high-capacity and high, topped by arched ceilings and arches that provide an open courtyard or a wide and easily accessible yard, basin, basin, fountain, shed or sign. Administrative, supervisory, service, external, Diwan, glasses, barbakhana, school, library, mosque, stands, morgue toilets, and bimarstan tombs dedicated to bury the dead. Food, fireplaces, bread ovens, and guard and surveillance rooms.

Al – Ghazala House In Al-Jedada Neighborhood in Aleppo in the Ottoman Period

Mohammed khudher Mahmood

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 225-244
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164573

       The current study is consider as a documentary ,architectural  artistic study . It sheds lights on the architectural essences for the designing of the house in Aleppo in the Ottoman period . Up till now, we do not know exactly the percentage of destruction that happened in this city due to the ongoing war there in the city .                                                                           
The study uncovers those families that were living in this house . afterward this house was shifted to a school . The study goes on to give architectural description  of the house under study. The house is made of  many wards ; the north ward consists of two floors . The  southern one consists of iwan which is the most significant component in the Ottoman design

The Relations of the Assyrian Capital of Nineveh with the City of Harran during the Neo Assyrian Period (911-612 B.C)

Iman Hani Salim Al-Allosh

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 245-258
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164574

      The Assyrian period (911-612 BC) is one of the most ancient times in the history of ancient Iraq in general and Assyria in particular. The Assyrians had a significant and direct impact on the ancient Near East with their accomplishments in the fields of military conquests, urban planning and economic development. The Assyrian achievements spread along the geographical boundaries of the Assyrian Empire and the neighboring countries. These Assyrian achievements had a great impact on the definition of the long Assyrian history which ended with the fall of the Assyrian capital "Nineveh" in 612 BC by the Babylonian-Medi alliance. There have been many studies and researches over the history of the Assyrian Empire from various political, cultural and economic aspects. They have considerably contributed to the continuous excavations and modern readings of the cuneiform texts and substantially enriched the relevant researches with a lot of details.
 What concerns us in this research is the Assyrian relations in the modern Assyrian era in North and North-West of Mesopotamia, the area referred to by many researchers as the Upper Euphrates. This study is intended to investigate the relationship between the Assyrian capital Nineveh and the city of Harran on various political, religious and economic dimensions drawing on the cuneiform texts from contracts, royal letters and the results of archaeological excavations.    Though Harran appeared as a big city early in the third millennium BC, its prominent territorial and strategic significance was only evident in the first millennium BC, especially in the Assyrian and Babylonian modern era. The ambitions of the kings during that period to take control of the city of Harran noticeably increased due to its geographic location, scarcity, and welfare. Archaeological excavations proved that Harran was a great city and its strategic geographic location made it a target for conquest and occupation by the Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Medieval kings. Harran had an observable value in terms of religion. It was mentioned in the Old Testament as the city of Abraham, PBUH. In addition, the Assyrian kings of the first millennium BC considered the city the main center of worship of the god of the moon.

The Dutiful Son and The Undutiful Son

Heba H. Al- Noaemy

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 259-274
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164576

This research was an attempt to highlight a clear picture of the duties of the righteous son and the disabled son and the look of socity and the ancient. Babylonian laws towards him. This research has brought us to the fundamental issues concerning the old Iraqi family in the right of parents to sell and mortgage their children in the hands of ceremonies and funerary retinal after their death, and respect for parents and obeying one of the most important duties of not consider the respect of the children and their parents as a legal duty imposed not only on the family and the houses old, but also on the other thdividuals as being based on the traditions and laws of the old Babylonian society. The parents of the great sins and sins committed by the son punishment towards his parents and yaid that a lot of go vided for the punishment of the son the successor in the society of the Babylonian old

Unpublished cuneiform text on barley ((From the new Sumerian age)

Muath Habash Khudhur

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 275-292
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164577

Mesopotamia witnessed a noticeable achievement during the modern Sumerian Age in all different aspects of life in economy, policy and religion. The economic life in Mesopotamia was established basically on agriculture, livestock and their products, secondly on industry and trade. Agriculture and livestock were the fundmental factor for life in mesoptomia in most of the historical ages.
After the falling of the kingdom of Akkad by the Gutian invaders, a stage of chaos, political and economic disorders followed according to what has been given in the Sumerians kings lists. After defeating the Gutians, the the third age of Ur has come where five kings governed the country, they are: Ur-Namo and his son Shoolgy after that his two sons Amar–Sein and Shoo – Sein consecutively and then the king Abe – Sein.    
The topic of the research depends mainly on one of the cuneiform texts preserved in the Iraqi Museum numbered (IM.20547). The text cannot be identified from which city or the location found since it was confiscated for the benefit of the Iraqi Museum.
There are different reason which led me to choose this text and one of them it is related to one particular item which is barley. It was planted in the first place and wheat where both considered as economic importance since they are a main source of food and they were used in economic transactions. They were a mean of trading and pricing items and wages in an age where an official coin was not issued yet from the kingdom.
From this importance for barley, the topic of research came to shed light on the most neutrino prominent factor that Mesopotamia depended on. Barely was named in Sumerian language ŠE and its vocabulary in Acadian is še'u. And barely was distributed on some individuals, names and also on the Gods temple Gulah and the God's temple Nargal.
Also, we are able to identify in that time how to calculate different quantities distributed on different people according to measures and weights. In addition, the need to examine barley, its quantities and how to measure it in that time particularly, the need to identify its importance though there are some texts were read without paying attention to the distributed material. And to recognize the agricultural issues that were considered the backbone for human being in Mesopotamia until now.  

Threat Expressions In The Letters of The Babylonian

Rami Abdul Hakeem Qasim AL-Ibadi

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 293-306
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164578

During our study of the ancient Babylonian epochs, many threats from the king to one of his rulers or his staff or those of senior officials of the kingdom to those of lower rank were stopped. Between two equal levels of administrative or military status, had several reasons, although they were often within the scope of the law. For the same reasons, the Governor or the responsible officer did not comply with the duties assigned to him and sometimes some rulers or employees exploited their position in the management of their affairs The Kingdom, or because of a complaint addressed to the King or the Governor of the employee or an ordinary person requesting the recovery of his right, so this research came to highlight the words of threat contained in the messages of the old Babylonian epochs, has been divided into three main axes: The threat of the king (law), the second axis: it contained the words threatening threats, and the third axis has been talking about the words death threat.

Unpublished Rental Contracts Form the Ear of Babylon King Samso _ Ilona Form the City of Bekasi

Yasir Jabir Khalil

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 307-330
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164579

      This article deals with four Old Babyloian cuneiform texts unearthed at Tell Abu_Enteek ( ancient Pekasi ) during the Iraqi Expedition carried out on the last few years. These texts dated to the reign of Samsi _ Iluna son of Hammurabi,  king of Babylon  ( 1749_ 1712 B.C ) .Now in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad. 

Messenger Texts of the City of Umma (Jucha) (a study in the light of cuneiform sources).

Abather Rahi Saadoon Al-Zidi

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 331-354
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164580

The text of the ( Messenger Texts) is one of the important topics not studied in recent researchs in our Arabic library in more details and our research came to highlight on this important subject, Which is related to the adminstrative side of the coummunity of Mesopotamia, the staff of the Messengers who sent between Mesopotamia and Elam, they resevied rations which the researchers have classived them into thirteen parts and each part has its own charachteristics which distinguish from the other.
The texts of the Messenger Texts came from two important cities : the city of Girsu ( Tello ) and Umma ( Jokh ) Which are located in the southeren part of the Iraq today on the road of Iran where the country of Elam. The texts of the Messenger has covered period from thirty-eighth years of the rule of the Sumerian king ( Shlgi) to the fourth years of the rule of the Sumerian king ( Abi-suen). It was revealed through the research that cuneiform texts recorded distrubution five types of goods or rations, namely good beer (kaŒ sig5 ), bread ( ninda ), oil (i-( giŒ) onions (sum) and fish (ku6), and there are also some materials that have been distributed, namely flour (zi2) and leather (kuŒ),also the cuneiform texts listed the name of the people who obtained the ration or food ( Œa3-gal ) and their titles and professions such as the Minister ( Sukkal ), the makkin employee .
The research classified into the introudaction and two topics dealit with first section previous studies of the Messenger Texts in the city of Umma ( Jokh ), the texts of the Messengers Texts unpublished and the difinition of terms contained in the texts of the Messengers texts , while we in the section to the classification of researchers (Schnider,N) and (Snyder,J) , and the classification of researcher (McNeil ) and each classification of the own groups and cuneiform text were cited from resourses publishesd in the British Museum and relied on recent research and studies on the subject, researcher (McNeil ) and the studies of the researchers (Spada,G) and ( Milona,M.E) .
1) McNeil, R. C., "The Messenger Texts of the Third Ur Dynasty" (Ph.D. disc),University of Pennsylvania:1970.
2) Spada,G.&Milona,M.E,"Umma Messenger Texts in the British museum",(UMTBM 2) Part,3,Nisaba,Vol.3,Roma:2003.

Preservation of Archaeological Buildings, Built with Stones from Natural Factors

Rana Wadulla Mahdi

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 375-392
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164582

The buildings that are built with stone expose to damage because of the surrounding natural factors. The degree of the factors effect may differ according to the kinds of stone and their features and their degree effect with the natural factors in addition to the nature of the building and its solidarity. Therefore, there should be solutions to preserve the technical and historical value of these buildings and protect them. It is worthy to mention that using the stone material in building was from early ages related to the beginning of the tenth thousand B. C., particularly in northern areas of Iraq, as a result of the availability of this material. It had been used in the foundations of the building to strength and preserve them. It had been used also in covering the walls bases to protect them from the ground water rising by capillarity at the same time to give a kind of decoration to the building. The use of this material continued in building till the next ages, where it was restricted on the foundation and walls bases but it goes beyond that by making from it architectural elements such as columns, knotting, curves, faming the openings of windows, entrances, paving the grounds and other uses which proves the builder experience with the material features which he used according to what the building demand. Before the beginning of any work whether it was preservation or restoration, there should be a survey for these buildings to know the stone kinds which the building was built and its chemical structure in addition to knowing the damage that his this building and their causes; then finding appropriate solutions to preserve this building. It is necessary to make the works of preservation and restoration according to studied scientific rules in order to keep the building and its distinctive historical characteristic.

The Goldsmith and his craft in the ancient Iraq in the Light of Cuneiform Sources

Ra'ad Salim Mohammad AL-me'mari

Athar Alrafedain, 2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 393-408
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164583

The research deals with studying the goldsmith and his craft in the ancient Iraq, and showing his role in the smothery of the royal and public jewelries. The goldsmith played an important role in the kings lives since the most ancient ages, because his work connected directly with the achieving the requirements of the ancient Iraq kings, especially from the accessories; and the members of the society in general. This is what was proven by the results of archaeological excavations , in addition to what it showed of evidences of golden treasures which has been discovered in Ur and Kalih (Nimrud), which is regarded from the most fascinating treasures which has ever made by the ancient Iraqi goldsmith . The research aimed at showing the role of the goldsmith as one of the most professional craftsmen of the crafts which appeared in the ancient Iraq ; in addition to the work of the goldsmith and the place of his work (the workshop) , and then the tools and the professional ways of his work . ا