Issue 1


The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.

The University of Mosul and its archaeological activity

Amer Suleiman

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69367

It has been a philosophy of the university of Mosul and its scientific and cultural programs since its establishment to interact with the community, and one of the most prominent means of interaction was to uncover the ancient and Islamic monuments of the region and to preserve its popular heritage. Therefore, a prestigious delegation from the University of Mosul visited a number of archaeological sites near the city, especially those in which foreign excavation organizations work to learn about the scientific methods used in excavation. The first is the northern Nineveh Wall, the second is the Bashtabia Castle, and the last is the Sherikhan site, north of the University of Mosul.

Samarra's ornamentation patterns and their influence on the ornamentation of Mosul in the third century AH / ninth century AD

Ahmed Qassim Aljumaah

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69443

The city of Samarra’ was distinguished by its architectural and artistic styles, and it was the capital of the Abbasid government instead of Baghdad when it was built by Caliph Al-Mu'tasim (221 AH / 836 AD). The research discusses the classifications of archaeologists of the three ornamentations of the city of Samarra, depending on the quality of its elements, its technical characteristics, the method of implementation, and the opinions of researchers in the sequence and arrangement of these models and their impact on the ornamentation of Mosul.

Hatra Kingdom: Political Situation

Jaber Khalil Ibrahim

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 31-49
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69688

The city of Hatra played an important role in the political situation due to its advantages and characteristics, especially its geographical location, which made it unique comparing to the other surrounding areas. The political roles of the city have been divided into three roles: the formation role, the gentlemen’s role and the kings role, and so far this has been the certified division among the researchers.

The palace of king Ashur-aḫi-idina in Nineveh -Reading and Analyzing the Inscriptions and Archaeological Evidences

Khalid Salim Ismael

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 51-61
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69689


The palace of King Ašur-aḫi-idina (Esarhaddon) 681-668 BC. was built on the Nabi Yunis hill, it is one of the important archaeological buildings in the city of Nineveh. King Ašur-aḫi-idina mentioned it in his memorial writings and gave very accurate descriptions of the stages of building this palace, and how he expands it, as well as important details that outlined the stages of its construction and how it became a distinguished administrative building, which he called "the palace in which everything was collected".
In this research, we will shed light again on this building through a careful analytical reading of what was mentioned in the memorial cuneiform writings of this king in which he referred to the rebuilding of this palace and the expansion of its area and making it one of the most important and famous buildings of the city of Nineveh and the most famous at that time, as he explained the purpose of building this great palace.

The Royal Streets obelisks in Nineveh between the Biblical Text and the Art Scene

Nawala Ahmed Al-Mutwally

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69690

The research deals with an Assyrian stone obelisk acquired by the Iraqi Museum in 1999 and displayed in the Mosul Civilization Museum with museum number 147624 - A.D. It is a rectangular obelisk that includes a text written in cuneiform dating back to the Assyrian king Sennacherib (704-681 BC). The text included the name of the king and his titles and a summary of his military actions as well as his construction works in "the city of Nineveh. The obelisk was appended to the penalties imposed on those who cross the street in which it was placed".

The role of surveying and archaeological excavations in writing the history of ancient Iraq

Sabah Jassim Al Shukri

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69691

The research deals with recent studies in the field of archaeology during the last four decades of the last century. The survey work is one of the broad areas of research in archeology. The research also focuses on the importance of survey work and its role in documenting everything found on the surface of archaeological sites, as well as describing the stratigraphic succession of those sites. It also provides a rich background for the preparation of studies related to urban planning, such as the system of distributing settlements on the land, their different areas, the number of their heights, the irrigation networks extending in them and the distribution of small agricultural villages around them.

List of names of workers from the city of Meturan

Ahmed Kamel Mohamed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69692

The research deals with one of the cuneiform texts discovered in the city of Meturan (Tall Haddad), which is labelled with the museum number 121115-AD, which dates back to the ancient Babylonian era and includes a record of the workers names under the command of a person, all of whom are from the city of (Batir).
The importance of the text lies in the fact that it listed no less than 152 personal names that belongs to one city.

The Written Quotation Behind the Epic of Gilgamesh and Its visual Dimensions Through the Ancient Iraqi Civilization Judea and Hammurabi as a Model

Juhaina Hamid Hassani

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 97-116
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69694

The shape has been depicted as one of the most significant civilizational means which functions in human life, in terms of linking “senders” and “receivers” within the art of structural speech. It aims at making an awareness of what lies behind the event more than its apparent narrative, as it focuses more on descriptive manifestations at the expense of the actual content. For that reason, we worked on the re-interpretation of civilization, in accordance with the specialty of art, through its more graphic output, and in the light of the semiotic approach. We examined the structural signs in extremely precise detail of the partials, and then followed its uniform pattern within each single text, thus making way for the whole of the ancient Iraqi civilization in the form of three social reformers (Gilgamesh, Judea, and Hammurabi). These reformers share three works of fine art on the concept of how to maintain life and durability. The resulted concept was decided in favor of a symbolic approach towards good deeds, which were represented as the overall value of a sound life, and agreed upon as a common symbol of world religions, of which Islam is the seal. These various forms of expression are no longer restricted to a certain time, age, or category of people. On the contrary, their influence has expanded to all sorts of expressive fields, to an unlimited extent, as they started at a single point before expanding in accordance with social needs.

The ancient Iraqi philosophical thought is a base for Greek philosophy

Shaalan Kamel Ismail

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 113-118
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69695

It became known to researchers in the history of Greek philosophy that this thought was not a local Greek innovation in those distinct limited centuries between the eighth century to the third century BC. Rather, it is the outcome of human creativity presented by the ancient Iraqi civilization and other civilizations of the ancient East since many centuries BC and that huge intellectual outcome that the Greeks inherited during their prosperity in the sixth century BC. And they benefit from and sorted out a new thought that influenced their character and personality.

Rebellion and disobedience in the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom (911-612 BC)

Safwan Sami Saeed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 119-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69697

The military expansion of the Neo Assyrian period was different impulsive and reasons, the mass deportation of the peoples from the conquered countries and settling them as groups in side Assyria and in other countries which retained their ethnic unity in Assyria. the endless orders of these kings, all these factors had their great effect in creating a kind of rebellious behaviors of a sector of population in Assyrian kingdom. These rebellious movements against the king's authority and his influence which affected all the aspects of life in the kingdom. This rebellion bothered most of the Assyrian kings who thought that it is an indication to the kingdom weakness and its exhaustion politically and economically, so they tried through their different policies control that situation and put an end to it. The present research aims at shedding the light on the characteristics of that rebellion and knowing its reasons and the ways followed by the Assyrian kings to prevent it.

Two unpublished cuneiform texts from the Ur III Period

Khaled Haider Othman Al-Hafiz

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69698

There is no doubt that the third dynasty of Ur was of great importance in the history of ancient Iraq, as the geographical area of ​​the rule of this dynasty extended to include large areas of the borders of Iraq today, and this extension had a clear impact on all aspects of life, especially the economic ones. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the economy of the third dynasty of Ur, including the two texts under study. The first text was a text of the delivery of a group of donkeys with mention of their gender and period, while the other was a list of distribution of wheat and barley crops.

Water supply and disposal in Assyria in the light of cuneiform sources.

Eman Hani Alloush

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69779

The supply and disposal of water in the cities and the capital in ancient Iraq is one of the important civilizational achievements and one of the most important elements of civilization whose influence has spread to the civilizations of the neighboring countries of Mesopotamia. The cuneiform texts and archaeological evidence reflected the importance of providing water to the population in ancient Iraq, especially the modern Assyrian era, as well as finding ways to drain the (heavy) wastewater.

Al-Khawser River in Cuneiform Sources

Abdul Rahman Younis Abdul Rahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 158-176
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69780

The Khosr River is one of the ancient tributaries of the Tigris River, whose traces of its valley are still visible in the city of Nineveh to the present time. According to the discovered written evidence, the first mention of the Khosr River in cuneiform texts came in the records of the Middle Assyrian Period, specifically from the reign of King Tukulti - Abel - Ishara I (1115-1077 BC). As the name of the river was mentioned in the texts of this king in the form (Khosra), while it was mentioned in the texts of King Sennacherib (704-681 BC) in the form (Khosri), and this name has continued to this day despite the passage of 3000 years since Its inclusion in cuneiform texts.

Relative Pronoun and its Relative Clause in the Akkadian Language

Hassanein H. Abdulwahed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 177-188
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69782

In spite of the fate that Akkadian is not regarded as a communication and writing language, it is still paid a great deal of attention by the scholars specializations in this language. This fact lies in that this language awash with information that helped the scholars in this field to make a kind of unification in the rules of the Arabits languages to solve their complications.
This study sheds light on important aspect of this language, namely, '' the relative pronoun in the Akkadian language '' this is an attempt to arabits the rules of these Akkadian language.
This study introduces the definition of the relation pronoun, its clause, its order and the antecedent pronoun of the relative pronoun. It also talks about the connection between the noun, verb and the relative pronoun. Similarly it tackles the omitted relative pronoun in the relative clause.
One of the most important features of the Akkadian language is that the relative pronoun is the basic element in the Akkadian sentence which creates, with its antecedent, a nominal sentence non acting clause in the parsing.

Geometric Motifs in ancient Sumerian Art

Ghassan Mardan

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 189-199
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69784

Ornamentations in Ancient Sumerian Art are very important in studies related to ruins of ancient arts. Artists in ancient Mesopotamia have paid a great attention in performing artistic. It was very necessary decorated the surfaces of these works with certain forms of ornamentations represented by manipulation and repetition. Ornamentations are forms that can be shaped of linear lings that can be resulted from crossing straight and curve lines. Giving details about ornaments leads us to study our ancient history Since it first came into being 5000 BC.

Examples of wild animals on the Assyrian sculptures - selected samples

Yasmin Yassin Saleh

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 201-212
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69787

Information related to the animals in Mesopotamia comes from three sources, the first of which is the bones discovered through archaeological excavations, the second is the signs of cuneiform texts, and the third is the artistic scenes. The study of animal bones provides us with valuable information about the animal's type, sex, age, and in some cases, the diseases it previously had. The cuneiform texts provided information on the names of animals, as well as economic records on temple herds, as well as lists of animals that kings hunted or kept in their private parks.

Archaeologists and Heritage Experts and Their Successive Generations in Iraq

Abdullah Ameen Agha

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 213-220
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69788

Our course and its graduates from archaeologists for the year 1964-1965 are considered one of the largest and most numerous graduate courses who worked in the state board of Antiquities and Heritage, as well as graduates of courses similar to it in the years of graduation, whether they were from the group before it or after it (third group) in completing the archaeological process, excavations, archaeological conservation and research  Archaeological and historical publication and scientific publication in the various branches of relevant studies. It includes those working in laboratories, photography, libraries, manuscripts, museums, engineering in its branches, translators, Sharqat diggers, carpenters, cataloguers, media professionals, painters...etc.