The great development that we see today in the field of mental sciences was not the result of recent experiments and research. It was rather that most of these sciences including medicine date back in their roots to ancient civilizations that paid attention to their upbringing and development as a product of this era or the previous era and it was one of the important elements of the advancement of the realities and sophistication of these societies.
Ophthalmology, the topic of this paper, was and still is an important branch of medicine. Through which we will learn the nature of this type of medicine in ancient civilizations including: the ancient Egyptian civilization, the Iraqi civilization, the Greek civilization, the Indian civilization and the Persian civilization. The research concluded to mentioning ophthalmology in the pre-Islamic era.
For the sake of completing this paper, it was necessary for the researcher to visit many resources and main references and assistance.