The dome is one of the most important architectural elements throughout the ages. Its discovery is an architectural revolution, being the most important among the architectural and construction techniques. Although there are several archaeological evidences of the contribution of the Mesopotamian civilization to this important innovation, so far the Mesopotamian dome theory has not been clarified and studied in detail; since there are no domes existing from antiquity, and because of the lack of enough accurate information about it. The researcher tries to investigate archaeological evidence about the contribution of Mesopotamia to the creation of the dome with a special technology using brick rows, which was the main building material. The researcher also answers fundamental questions, including, what is the Mesopotamian dome theory? Did the dome continue to be used somewhere? In which site of Mesopotamia was did it continue to be used? Where is this site?