Demons and Evil Spirits in Ancient Iraq in Light of Cuneiform Texts
2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 281-302
AbstractThe civilization of ancient Iraq was distinguished by its religious beliefs from its inception until late periods. This was reflected in different aspects of life, including belief in the influence of spiritual forces, which are divided into the forces of good and evil. These forces were known since ancient times and developed over time with the development of ancient Iraqi beliefs, until they acquire in the first millennium BC. It takes an advanced position in the ancient Iraqi thought and belief, so that this was reflected in the mention of these powers in cuneiform texts such as texts of incantations, incantations and exorcisms, or in myths and other texts, or in the inscription of their forms on carvings and seals, inscriptions, statues and various monuments, or in finding ways to expel these Evil forces, as in the forms of sentinel compound at the entrances to palaces or temples to expel their harmful effects. This study deals with the spiritual forces of evil such as demons and evil spirits, based on cuneiform texts and some of their effects that were reflected in the behavior of society as a whole.
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