Preservation of Archaeological Buildings, Built with Stones from Natural Factors
2018, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 375-392
The buildings that are built with stone expose to damage because of the surrounding natural factors. The degree of the factors effect may differ according to the kinds of stone and their features and their degree effect with the natural factors in addition to the nature of the building and its solidarity. Therefore, there should be solutions to preserve the technical and historical value of these buildings and protect them. It is worthy to mention that using the stone material in building was from early ages related to the beginning of the tenth thousand B. C., particularly in northern areas of Iraq, as a result of the availability of this material. It had been used in the foundations of the building to strength and preserve them. It had been used also in covering the walls bases to protect them from the ground water rising by capillarity at the same time to give a kind of decoration to the building. The use of this material continued in building till the next ages, where it was restricted on the foundation and walls bases but it goes beyond that by making from it architectural elements such as columns, knotting, curves, faming the openings of windows, entrances, paving the grounds and other uses which proves the builder experience with the material features which he used according to what the building demand. Before the beginning of any work whether it was preservation or restoration, there should be a survey for these buildings to know the stone kinds which the building was built and its chemical structure in addition to knowing the damage that his this building and their causes; then finding appropriate solutions to preserve this building. It is necessary to make the works of preservation and restoration according to studied scientific rules in order to keep the building and its distinctive historical characteristic.
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