Messenger Texts of the City of Umma (Jucha) (a study in the light of cuneiform sources).
AbstractThe text of the ( Messenger Texts) is one of the important topics not studied in recent researchs in our Arabic library in more details and our research came to highlight on this important subject, Which is related to the adminstrative side of the coummunity of Mesopotamia, the staff of the Messengers who sent between Mesopotamia and Elam, they resevied rations which the researchers have classived them into thirteen parts and each part has its own charachteristics which distinguish from the other.
The texts of the Messenger Texts came from two important cities : the city of Girsu ( Tello ) and Umma ( Jokh ) Which are located in the southeren part of the Iraq today on the road of Iran where the country of Elam. The texts of the Messenger has covered period from thirty-eighth years of the rule of the Sumerian king ( Shlgi) to the fourth years of the rule of the Sumerian king ( Abi-suen). It was revealed through the research that cuneiform texts recorded distrubution five types of goods or rations, namely good beer (ka sig5 ), bread ( ninda ), oil (i-( gi) onions (sum) and fish (ku6), and there are also some materials that have been distributed, namely flour (zi2) and leather (ku),also the cuneiform texts listed the name of the people who obtained the ration or food ( a3-gal ) and their titles and professions such as the Minister ( Sukkal ), the makkin employee .
The research classified into the introudaction and two topics dealit with first section previous studies of the Messenger Texts in the city of Umma ( Jokh ), the texts of the Messengers Texts unpublished and the difinition of terms contained in the texts of the Messengers texts , while we in the section to the classification of researchers (Schnider,N) and (Snyder,J) , and the classification of researcher (McNeil ) and each classification of the own groups and cuneiform text were cited from resourses publishesd in the British Museum and relied on recent research and studies on the subject, researcher (McNeil ) and the studies of the researchers (Spada,G) and ( Milona,M.E) .
1) McNeil, R. C., "The Messenger Texts of the Third Ur Dynasty" (Ph.D. disc),University of Pennsylvania:1970.
2) Spada,G.&Milona,M.E,"Umma Messenger Texts in the British museum",(UMTBM 2) Part,3,Nisaba,Vol.3,Roma:2003.
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