Main Subjects : Historical and cultural studies

Palm Trees In the Greco-Roman World

Wathiq Ismaeel Al-Salihi

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3-23
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170118

The Greeks called the palm tree “phoenix” and “phoenicia” on the Syrian Coast and they believed that the Phoenicians had a significant role in spreading its agriculture. The earliest mention of the palm tree is found

in the Odyssey of Homer when Odysseus described the palm tree in the Island of Delos. Herodotus mentioned palm in Babylonia and the various benefits of both the dates and the trees themselves. Strabo in his Geography numerates the advantages of the palm and said that the Palms were planted in Europe, but they do not bear the ripened dates because of the weather, the dates need hot climate to ripen.
Pliny the Elder narrates detailed accounts on the Palms and methods of growing and he mentioned 49 kinds of dates. The representation of Palms in the arts is limited and in accidental way. However, Palms were depicted on coins and on few representations.

The fountain in the mosques of Mosul during the Ottoman era - Selected models

Wassan Abdul Muttalib Hassan

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 395-421
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76891

Given the importance of the fountain from an archaeological and functional point of view, we studied it not only by relying on archaeological studies and library references, but by relying on the scientific method represented by field studies and visiting relevant mosques. The study did not depend on the description only, but went beyond the study of the fountain in its planning, design, architectural and technical elements.

The settlement system in ancient Iraq and areas in the Arab world

Morning Jassim Shoukry

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 111-119
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76830

The settlement passed through two main temporal phases: the phase of collecting time, which took most of human life on earth, and then the phase of sustenance production, which began in the early Stone Age, that happened about 11,000 years BC, which witnessed the stages of real human development and the first steps towards our current civilization. The discovery of agriculture was the great turning point in the march of human civilizations is the main incentive for stability in fixed and permanent places where people seek refuge.

The Moral Values of the Assyrians

Safwan Sami Al-Rifai

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 133-150
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76835

The research aims to shed light on one of the most prominent highlights of the Assyrian civilization in its human heritage, which is ethics. It has been proven with conclusive evidence that military force has never been the way to build nations and achieve their goals unless members of society are cohesive and possess the values ​​and morals inherent in their souls and inherited through Generations have become one of the systems in which societies are not established without them. Despite the strength and valor of the Assyrians and their successive wars to protect their sprawling state, they were also known for their sound nature and colors of moral thinking.

From "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq" toss dungeons

Amer Sulieman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76812

The "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq", which is in its final stages of completion, included hundreds of topics
related to written and unwritten law that governed the Iraqi communities that lived in Mesopotamia since the
dawn of history and the beginning of the use of writing as a means of codification and transfer of ideas and customs,
and then laws, decrees and instructions In the first half of the third millennium until the end of the national rule in
Iraq and its fall under the fire of the Persian and Greek foreign occupation in the middle of the first millennium BC.

Indications from the history of the city of Nineveh during the third and second millennium BC

Haifa Abdel Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 351-375
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76886

Archaeological excavations indicate that the history of the city of Nineveh dates back to early times that exceed the fifth millennium BC, according to the study of pottery evidence, models of seals and the foundations of the plans of the buildings discovered there. Civilizational developments have continued in the archaeological site of Nineveh, based on a study of the remnants of the archaeological layers and determining their temporal roles up to the historical ages when cuneiform texts began to appear among the contents of the site to shed more light on the civilizational history of this city.

Hamed Al-Amin House as a Model for the Mosul House in the Ottoman Era - A Field Study

Rana waeadallah Mahdi

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 377-394
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76889

The city of Mosul is one of the most important cities that has maintained its cultural continuity since the most ancient times, and this is what we notice in many of its archaeological heritage buildings, especially those dating back to the Ottoman era, including residential houses, some of which still exist, testifying to the city’s status and the ability of its people to Creativity and innovation, and from this house the house of Hamed Al-Amin, who preserved the artistic styles and architectural methods that were followed when building houses in the Ottoman era.

Excavations at Quynajik hill: Past Achievements and Future Hopes

Jaber Khalil Ibrahim

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 31-40
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76815

Qoynajik hill is of cultural importance, as it includes the palaces and temples of the Assyrian kings. That is why it attracted the first excavators, starting with the British Consul Claudius Rich, who drew an accurate map of the city of Nineveh and conducted scattered excavations in the hill in 1820. His writings on the antiquities of Iraq, especially Quynajik Hill, stimulated European governments, as France sent Paul Emile Botta." To excavate in Nineveh in 1842, followed by Henry Layard, the British prospector, and his assistant, Hormuzd Rassam, in 1845, whose excavations continued until 1851. Because of the importance of his discovery, which adorns the British Museum, the English excavators continued their excavations in this hill, which was characterized by randomness, Until the prospectors corrected their course when Leonard Kink took over, and followed by Campbell Thompson and Max Mallowan. 

Bribery and its judgements in the old Iraqi law

Ahlam Saadallah Talbi

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 81-92
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76818

Bribery is one of the serious evils that have plagued societies since ancient times until the present time, given that the consequences of it are devastating to society in all its aspects, including moral, social and economic ones, as it has become part of the tradition that leads in society. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the role of the ancient kings of Iraq in combating this phenomenon and issuing deterrent legal rulings against bribes, some of whose rulings lead to death.

List of names of workers from the city of Meturan

Ahmed Kamel Mohamed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69692

The research deals with one of the cuneiform texts discovered in the city of Meturan (Tall Haddad), which is labelled with the museum number 121115-AD, which dates back to the ancient Babylonian era and includes a record of the workers names under the command of a person, all of whom are from the city of (Batir).
The importance of the text lies in the fact that it listed no less than 152 personal names that belongs to one city.

The role of surveying and archaeological excavations in writing the history of ancient Iraq

Sabah Jassim Al Shukri

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69691

The research deals with recent studies in the field of archaeology during the last four decades of the last century. The survey work is one of the broad areas of research in archeology. The research also focuses on the importance of survey work and its role in documenting everything found on the surface of archaeological sites, as well as describing the stratigraphic succession of those sites. It also provides a rich background for the preparation of studies related to urban planning, such as the system of distributing settlements on the land, their different areas, the number of their heights, the irrigation networks extending in them and the distribution of small agricultural villages around them.

The Written Quotation Behind the Epic of Gilgamesh and Its visual Dimensions Through the Ancient Iraqi Civilization Judea and Hammurabi as a Model

Juhaina Hamid Hassani

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 97-116
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69694

The shape has been depicted as one of the most significant civilizational means which functions in human life, in terms of linking “senders” and “receivers” within the art of structural speech. It aims at making an awareness of what lies behind the event more than its apparent narrative, as it focuses more on descriptive manifestations at the expense of the actual content. For that reason, we worked on the re-interpretation of civilization, in accordance with the specialty of art, through its more graphic output, and in the light of the semiotic approach. We examined the structural signs in extremely precise detail of the partials, and then followed its uniform pattern within each single text, thus making way for the whole of the ancient Iraqi civilization in the form of three social reformers (Gilgamesh, Judea, and Hammurabi). These reformers share three works of fine art on the concept of how to maintain life and durability. The resulted concept was decided in favor of a symbolic approach towards good deeds, which were represented as the overall value of a sound life, and agreed upon as a common symbol of world religions, of which Islam is the seal. These various forms of expression are no longer restricted to a certain time, age, or category of people. On the contrary, their influence has expanded to all sorts of expressive fields, to an unlimited extent, as they started at a single point before expanding in accordance with social needs.

Geometric Motifs in ancient Sumerian Art

Ghassan Mardan

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 189-199
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69784

Ornamentations in Ancient Sumerian Art are very important in studies related to ruins of ancient arts. Artists in ancient Mesopotamia have paid a great attention in performing artistic. It was very necessary decorated the surfaces of these works with certain forms of ornamentations represented by manipulation and repetition. Ornamentations are forms that can be shaped of linear lings that can be resulted from crossing straight and curve lines. Giving details about ornaments leads us to study our ancient history Since it first came into being 5000 BC.

Examples of wild animals on the Assyrian sculptures - selected samples

Yasmin Yassin Saleh

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 201-212
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69787

Information related to the animals in Mesopotamia comes from three sources, the first of which is the bones discovered through archaeological excavations, the second is the signs of cuneiform texts, and the third is the artistic scenes. The study of animal bones provides us with valuable information about the animal's type, sex, age, and in some cases, the diseases it previously had. The cuneiform texts provided information on the names of animals, as well as economic records on temple herds, as well as lists of animals that kings hunted or kept in their private parks.

Archaeologists and Heritage Experts and Their Successive Generations in Iraq

Abdullah Ameen Agha

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 213-220
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69788

Our course and its graduates from archaeologists for the year 1964-1965 are considered one of the largest and most numerous graduate courses who worked in the state board of Antiquities and Heritage, as well as graduates of courses similar to it in the years of graduation, whether they were from the group before it or after it (third group) in completing the archaeological process, excavations, archaeological conservation and research  Archaeological and historical publication and scientific publication in the various branches of relevant studies. It includes those working in laboratories, photography, libraries, manuscripts, museums, engineering in its branches, translators, Sharqat diggers, carpenters, cataloguers, media professionals, painters...etc. 

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.