Main Subjects : Historical and cultural studies

The Historical Sense of the Assyrian king Tuklti-Ninurta (II) 890-884 BC

Ahmed Zidan Al-Hadidi

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-60
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176675

The research focused on the study of the history of Assyria for only seven years of its long history, specifically during the years of the reign of King Tawaklti-Nanurta (II) extending from the year 890 until the year 884 BC. Recording the achievements made during the years of his rule inside and outside Assyria in a systematic and scientific manner that is indisputable, especially when compared with the method used today in writing history. In his texts, the Assyrian king chronicled the place and time of the event by day, month and year, so he preserved his architectural and political achievements, in addition to preserving the legacy of his predecessors who preceded him on the Assyrian crown.

Early Bronze IV Pottery Assemblages from Umm Al-Hafriyat Southern Mesopotamia

Eleonora Mariani

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 239-251
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176685

The 2016-2018 QADIS survey project, conducted jointly by the University of Bologna and the SBAH, has investigated the south-eastern part of the Al Qadisiyah region. This paper will focus on the Early Bronze IV (Akkadian and Post-Akkadian) pottery assemblage collected from the surface survey carried out at QD033 – Umm al-Hafriyat.

A Look into the Neo-Assyrian Countryside: the Iron Age III Settlement of Taşlı Geçit Höyük in the Islahiye Valley

Gabreile Giacosa

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 227-238
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176684

Turco-Italian excavations on the site of Taşlı Geçit Höyük, located in the Islahiye valley (South-Eastern Turkey), partially investigated a rural settlement dating to the Iron Age III (late 8th-7th cent. BC). The evidence from the site represents an opportunity for further insights on the impact of the Neo-Assyrian Empire on the countryside of the Northern Levant.

"A Study of Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Neo-Sumerian Period"

Hussein Mohammed Ridha Al-Hummeri

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 207-226
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176683

The economic texts are considered as one of the most important documents that reflect the economic condition of society, Neo-Sumerian Period  (2200-2004 B.C) is one of the most abundant regards the greatest period that provides important documents to study the economic a social conditions of that period, this research studied four unpublished cuneiform texts belong to Iraqi Museum, but their location and reference are unknown, among all of them are historical formulas, two of them date back to Šū-Suen (2037-2029 B.C), the forth king of Ur III dynasty, the other two date back to Ibbi-Suen (2028-2004 B.C)  the last king of this dynasty, the research includes three sections the first deals with the contents of the cuneiform texts, the second about transliteration, translations and vocabulary explanations of these texts, as well as making manual copies for these texts, since the origin of these texts doesn’t have determined the researcher studied the names of the months that were scribed on them and tried to determine their regions, the third section is  studying  personal names that mentioned in these texts these.

Astronomy in Ottoman Painting

Shaymaa Jasim Albadri

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 183-206
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176682

Celestial bodies have occupied human beings' thinking and become a target to examine their essence and composition. Human beings started observing their movements and tried to explain these movements and connect them with global climate change occurring around. Basically، this led man to study them and record observations. Hence، astronomy becomes a science with its own structure، scientists and students who recorded all relevant events and enriched the libraries with their original contributions.
Astronomy is an important science that is associated with human life. It organizes the temporal life in accounting days، months and years. It is also the science to which Muslim rituals such as: prayer، fasting، pilgrimages are related closely to human life، as many other rituals do. Many other religions' rituals are related with it as well. People did not only record their observations and results of their scientific studies in astronomy، but also provided them with paintings that supported the value and role of these studies. A good example is what the Ottoman school contributed in manuscripts painting; as Ottoman Sultans had a profound interest in Astronomy. They devoted great educational institutions to it as expressed in beautiful miniature paintings of Ottoman Sultans' ceremonies.
Artistic Ottoman school miniatures that we attained are many. They maintain to us different astronomical phenomena and paths.  They even depict the astronomical observatory with its scientific staff engaged in work. The paper would examine all what has been mentioned with historical evidences.

Ownership of Agricultural Land and Collecting it in India (Hegira 4th century - 8th century / AD 10th - 14th century)

Suleiman Mohammed Ali

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 167-182
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176681

The research aims to identify the ownership of agricultural land in India from the fourth century AH / tenth century AD to the eighth century AH / fourteenth century AD, which the researchers did not focus on, and did not give an integrated picture of it, given the importance of agriculture in India, which is the backbone of their economy, and a craft The majority of Indian society, we must learn about the types of land ownership, especially after the entry of the Muslim conquerors to India and their expansion within it, after the third AH / ninth century AD, and the change of the land ownership system, which was previously followed, and the area of ​​all fiefs of the lands of princes, pens owners and leaders The army and endowment lands, and is the ownership of the land fixed, or does it change from one period to another, knowing the reasons that lead to the withdrawal of the land, and who was working in the cultivation of agricultural land, and also learning about the tax system, its type in kind or cash, and the amount imposed on each land , according to the quality of watering the land, whether permanently or militarily, and appointing the workers who receive the levy money.

Izz Al-Din Ibn Al-Atheer Narrated the Mosul Forces Battles with Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi (570-571 AH/ 1174-1175AD)

Manahl Osama Jar-Allah Al-Khero

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 149-166
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176680

The narrations of Izz al-Din Ibn al-Atheer on the battles that took place between the forces of Mosul and the Salah Al-Din  Al-Ayoubi of army of are a clear indication of the disclosure of  Ibn al-Atheer’s tendencies for the Zangids who live in their confines .and the  research dealt  with  his  narratires  that  relates to the battle of the qarun  Hama (570 AH/1174AD) and Tal al- sultan(571AH/1175AD) , the importance of the research lies in touching on the details of  Ibn Al-Atheer's  narrations and comparing them with contemporary sources of the event, some of which were from his approved sources, but he omitted or summarized some passages while Ibn Al-Atheer's accounts were an important source for those who came after him, and their influence remained in  Their texts, and at the same time it was the historians who tended to Salah Al-Din Such as Al-Emad Isfahani and Ibn Shaddad His anecdotes, had signed them responsibility to defend the positions of Salah Al-Din and legitimate Unitary, The research is divided into the first paragraphs qarun  Hama and the second Tal Al-Sultan, and each paragraph dealt with confrontation and results details.

Metathesis in Akkadian and Arabic Languages: A Contrastive Study

Abbas Ibrahim Saber

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 127-148
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176679

The phenomenon of metathesis in the sounds of most of the languages of the world prompted us to search for this topic in the Akkadian language, and compare it with the Arabic language to bring it closer and facilitate its understanding for the Arab reader, because the Akkadian language is one of the dead languages, and this topic related to the sounds and its heart is difficult to understand if it is not approximated or matched with One of the living languages, and the result was the collection of most of the words in which a spatial reversal occurred in the Akkadian and Arabic languages, and the comparison of words close to them with each other, in addition to reaching results that may be similar at times and different at other times.

Parthian Pottery from Tell Maskan, First Season 2008

Najat Ali Mohammed

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 99-126
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176678

The Archaeological excavations carried out by State Board of Antiquities and Heritage at the site of Tal Maskan, the first season in the summer of September 2008 AD, which was included in the list of sites that have been subjected to abuse for decades and are still, resulted in various archaeological collections in terms of cultural value. The most abundant in number, the richness of its technical subjects, and its service purposes, and it varied according to its misfortune after unveiling it among the rubble of the four points identified by the mission, as well as the preliminary data of previous investigations from the staff of the General Authority for Antiquities on the surface of the hill site in 1972, which Indicated broken pottery as well as mounds of ashes; This was confirmed by the results of the excavations of the first season 2008 AD within the sounding points in the depths of the first and second layers.

The Effect of the Senses in The Poetic Image of Mesopotamia Writers

Mohammed Ahmed Mohammed

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 81-98
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176677

The poetic image is considered the backbone of poetry and as the structure of the poem. The Mesopotamian poets depended on it to present their ideas and emotions. It can represent the form that shows the poet or artist's geniality and experience is manifested, and the tool for conveying ideas to the recipient in an effective way, and because the image is the essence of poetry, the poet writes his entity with it, though, depiction, expression, and language, to create for us a meaning within the meaning, so its importance appeared among poets in terms of Dimensions of the poem, its structure, composition and linking it with the other parts of the poem to clarify the idea to be demonstrated.
Literary texts left to us by Mesopotamian writers indicate that their civilization was not only footprints on the sands of time, but rather it is the heritage of the written word that is still the essence of humanity and its thought. How did he translate and convey his feelings that he was feeling as well as the thoughts that he had through the five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch), which were the basis for the first image to be described as traditional at first, but it evolved to reach advanced stages of speech and logic, so With the presence of these senses, we got to know the natural environment with its mountains, plains, marshes, deserts and all the animals that lived in them, in addition to the religious environment that was permeated in the psyche of that person and that left its prominent impact on the composition of his personality, as religious rituals and worship were directly linked to human activities. As for the social environment that the cuneiform texts showed us, it seems that the Sumerian society was a mythical society that believed in superstition and supernatural powers. People who were keen on their commitment to the customs and traditions that they brought by taking pride in the heroism of ancestors and writers, to inherit this social fabric a literature that is less than its counterpart in the ancient world due to the influence of the island peoples by Sumerian and vice versa towards legends, epics, lamentations, spinning, prayer, supplications, hymns, etc.

Palm Trees In the Greco-Roman World

Wathiq Ismaeel Al-Salihi

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3-23
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170118

The Greeks called the palm tree “phoenix” and “phoenicia” on the Syrian Coast and they believed that the Phoenicians had a significant role in spreading its agriculture. The earliest mention of the palm tree is found

in the Odyssey of Homer when Odysseus described the palm tree in the Island of Delos. Herodotus mentioned palm in Babylonia and the various benefits of both the dates and the trees themselves. Strabo in his Geography numerates the advantages of the palm and said that the Palms were planted in Europe, but they do not bear the ripened dates because of the weather, the dates need hot climate to ripen.
Pliny the Elder narrates detailed accounts on the Palms and methods of growing and he mentioned 49 kinds of dates. The representation of Palms in the arts is limited and in accidental way. However, Palms were depicted on coins and on few representations.

The settlement system in ancient Iraq and areas in the Arab world

Morning Jassim Shoukry

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 111-119
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76830

The settlement passed through two main temporal phases: the phase of collecting time, which took most of human life on earth, and then the phase of sustenance production, which began in the early Stone Age, that happened about 11,000 years BC, which witnessed the stages of real human development and the first steps towards our current civilization. The discovery of agriculture was the great turning point in the march of human civilizations is the main incentive for stability in fixed and permanent places where people seek refuge.

The Moral Values of the Assyrians

Safwan Sami Al-Rifai

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 133-150
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76835

The research aims to shed light on one of the most prominent highlights of the Assyrian civilization in its human heritage, which is ethics. It has been proven with conclusive evidence that military force has never been the way to build nations and achieve their goals unless members of society are cohesive and possess the values ​​and morals inherent in their souls and inherited through Generations have become one of the systems in which societies are not established without them. Despite the strength and valor of the Assyrians and their successive wars to protect their sprawling state, they were also known for their sound nature and colors of moral thinking.

From "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq" toss dungeons

Amer Sulieman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76812

The "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq", which is in its final stages of completion, included hundreds of topics
related to written and unwritten law that governed the Iraqi communities that lived in Mesopotamia since the
dawn of history and the beginning of the use of writing as a means of codification and transfer of ideas and customs,
and then laws, decrees and instructions In the first half of the third millennium until the end of the national rule in
Iraq and its fall under the fire of the Persian and Greek foreign occupation in the middle of the first millennium BC.

Indications from the history of the city of Nineveh during the third and second millennium BC

Haifa Abdel Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 351-375
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76886

Archaeological excavations indicate that the history of the city of Nineveh dates back to early times that exceed the fifth millennium BC, according to the study of pottery evidence, models of seals and the foundations of the plans of the buildings discovered there. Civilizational developments have continued in the archaeological site of Nineveh, based on a study of the remnants of the archaeological layers and determining their temporal roles up to the historical ages when cuneiform texts began to appear among the contents of the site to shed more light on the civilizational history of this city.

Hamed Al-Amin House as a Model for the Mosul House in the Ottoman Era - A Field Study

Rana waeadallah Mahdi

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 377-394
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76889

The city of Mosul is one of the most important cities that has maintained its cultural continuity since the most ancient times, and this is what we notice in many of its archaeological heritage buildings, especially those dating back to the Ottoman era, including residential houses, some of which still exist, testifying to the city’s status and the ability of its people to Creativity and innovation, and from this house the house of Hamed Al-Amin, who preserved the artistic styles and architectural methods that were followed when building houses in the Ottoman era.

The fountain in the mosques of Mosul during the Ottoman era - Selected models

Wassan Abdul Muttalib Hassan

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 395-421
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76891

Given the importance of the fountain from an archaeological and functional point of view, we studied it not only by relying on archaeological studies and library references, but by relying on the scientific method represented by field studies and visiting relevant mosques. The study did not depend on the description only, but went beyond the study of the fountain in its planning, design, architectural and technical elements.

Bribery and its judgements in the old Iraqi law

Ahlam Saadallah Talbi

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 81-92
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76818

Bribery is one of the serious evils that have plagued societies since ancient times until the present time, given that the consequences of it are devastating to society in all its aspects, including moral, social and economic ones, as it has become part of the tradition that leads in society. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the role of the ancient kings of Iraq in combating this phenomenon and issuing deterrent legal rulings against bribes, some of whose rulings lead to death.

Excavations at Quynajik hill: Past Achievements and Future Hopes

Jaber Khalil Ibrahim

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 31-40
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76815

Qoynajik hill is of cultural importance, as it includes the palaces and temples of the Assyrian kings. That is why it attracted the first excavators, starting with the British Consul Claudius Rich, who drew an accurate map of the city of Nineveh and conducted scattered excavations in the hill in 1820. His writings on the antiquities of Iraq, especially Quynajik Hill, stimulated European governments, as France sent Paul Emile Botta." To excavate in Nineveh in 1842, followed by Henry Layard, the British prospector, and his assistant, Hormuzd Rassam, in 1845, whose excavations continued until 1851. Because of the importance of his discovery, which adorns the British Museum, the English excavators continued their excavations in this hill, which was characterized by randomness, Until the prospectors corrected their course when Leonard Kink took over, and followed by Campbell Thompson and Max Mallowan. 

Archaeologists and Heritage Experts and Their Successive Generations in Iraq

Abdullah Ameen Agha

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 213-220
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69788

Our course and its graduates from archaeologists for the year 1964-1965 are considered one of the largest and most numerous graduate courses who worked in the state board of Antiquities and Heritage, as well as graduates of courses similar to it in the years of graduation, whether they were from the group before it or after it (third group) in completing the archaeological process, excavations, archaeological conservation and research  Archaeological and historical publication and scientific publication in the various branches of relevant studies. It includes those working in laboratories, photography, libraries, manuscripts, museums, engineering in its branches, translators, Sharqat diggers, carpenters, cataloguers, media professionals, painters...etc. 

Examples of wild animals on the Assyrian sculptures - selected samples

Yasmin Yassin Saleh

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 201-212
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69787

Information related to the animals in Mesopotamia comes from three sources, the first of which is the bones discovered through archaeological excavations, the second is the signs of cuneiform texts, and the third is the artistic scenes. The study of animal bones provides us with valuable information about the animal's type, sex, age, and in some cases, the diseases it previously had. The cuneiform texts provided information on the names of animals, as well as economic records on temple herds, as well as lists of animals that kings hunted or kept in their private parks.

Geometric Motifs in ancient Sumerian Art

Ghassan Mardan

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 189-199
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69784

Ornamentations in Ancient Sumerian Art are very important in studies related to ruins of ancient arts. Artists in ancient Mesopotamia have paid a great attention in performing artistic. It was very necessary decorated the surfaces of these works with certain forms of ornamentations represented by manipulation and repetition. Ornamentations are forms that can be shaped of linear lings that can be resulted from crossing straight and curve lines. Giving details about ornaments leads us to study our ancient history Since it first came into being 5000 BC.

The Written Quotation Behind the Epic of Gilgamesh and Its visual Dimensions Through the Ancient Iraqi Civilization Judea and Hammurabi as a Model

Juhaina Hamid Hassani

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 97-116
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69694

The shape has been depicted as one of the most significant civilizational means which functions in human life, in terms of linking “senders” and “receivers” within the art of structural speech. It aims at making an awareness of what lies behind the event more than its apparent narrative, as it focuses more on descriptive manifestations at the expense of the actual content. For that reason, we worked on the re-interpretation of civilization, in accordance with the specialty of art, through its more graphic output, and in the light of the semiotic approach. We examined the structural signs in extremely precise detail of the partials, and then followed its uniform pattern within each single text, thus making way for the whole of the ancient Iraqi civilization in the form of three social reformers (Gilgamesh, Judea, and Hammurabi). These reformers share three works of fine art on the concept of how to maintain life and durability. The resulted concept was decided in favor of a symbolic approach towards good deeds, which were represented as the overall value of a sound life, and agreed upon as a common symbol of world religions, of which Islam is the seal. These various forms of expression are no longer restricted to a certain time, age, or category of people. On the contrary, their influence has expanded to all sorts of expressive fields, to an unlimited extent, as they started at a single point before expanding in accordance with social needs.

The role of surveying and archaeological excavations in writing the history of ancient Iraq

Sabah Jassim Al Shukri

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69691

The research deals with recent studies in the field of archaeology during the last four decades of the last century. The survey work is one of the broad areas of research in archeology. The research also focuses on the importance of survey work and its role in documenting everything found on the surface of archaeological sites, as well as describing the stratigraphic succession of those sites. It also provides a rich background for the preparation of studies related to urban planning, such as the system of distributing settlements on the land, their different areas, the number of their heights, the irrigation networks extending in them and the distribution of small agricultural villages around them.

List of names of workers from the city of Meturan

Ahmed Kamel Mohamed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69692

The research deals with one of the cuneiform texts discovered in the city of Meturan (Tall Haddad), which is labelled with the museum number 121115-AD, which dates back to the ancient Babylonian era and includes a record of the workers names under the command of a person, all of whom are from the city of (Batir).
The importance of the text lies in the fact that it listed no less than 152 personal names that belongs to one city.

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.