Main Subjects : Cuneiform Inscriptions and ancient lines


Unpublished ancient Babylonian texts dealing with the cattle fattening

Ahmed Maysir Fadel

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 317-328
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76879

for livestock. Including cattle is of great importance in the economic life in ancient Iraq, perhaps the most prominent of which is to benefit from its products, especially meat, dairy, leather, wool, and others. In this area, one of the priorities of the ancient Iraqis, especially the kings, was the supervision of organized sheds for livestock breeding, multiplication and fattening, and this study came to shed some light on the barn Cattle fattening in the city of Larsa during the ancient Babylonian era.

Text from the time of Samuel, King of Larsa (1894-1866 BC) from Warsh hill

Ahmed Kamel

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 121-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76833

In the year 1990, Warsh hill, located in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, 25 km to the north-east of the city of Afak, was excavated. The excavators found two layers that dated the newest to the early Islamic era, while the oldest, which was with two building floors, dated to the ancient Babylonian era (Larsa Kingdom). In terms of the clay figure that was found on this site, which was of the economic type and dated to the years of the reign of four Larsa dynasty kings: Abi-Sari, Somuel, Nur-Adad and Sin Adnam.

Recipes for treating scorpion stings, snake and dog bites in the light of cuneiform texts from the library of Ashurbanipal

Muayyad Muhammad Suleiman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76842

The archaeological excavations that took place in various archaeological cities provided us with thousands of cuneiform texts that included various types of science and knowledge. One of these cities is the city of Nineveh, which was famous for its library full of thousands of cuneiform texts, which are preserved by the British Museum today. Today we chose a number of its texts, which included recipes for treating scorpion stings snakes and dog's bites are among the medical texts that abound in this library.

Fumigation and its uses in treating some of the diseases among the ancient Iraqis

Abdul Rahman Younis Abdul Rahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 159-176
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76844

Cuneiform texts related to medicine state that the method of fumigation was one of the medical treatment methods that were used in ancient Iraq to treat or contribute to many medical conditions. Fumigation was approved by the practitioner and the physician alike. The prevailing belief among the ancient Iraqis was that the main cause of diseases was the result of the wrath of the gods because of the sins committed by a person towards his gods, relatives, or a member of his family or clan. As for the doctor, he resorted to fumigation to treat many medical conditions that afflicted humans at the time, such as headaches, feet, ears, stomach and other diseases.

Fabrics in the light of archaeological carvings and cuneiform texts in the modern Assyrian era

shaymaa alnuami

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 177-198
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76849

When studying the fabrics, it is necessary to rely on the fresco carvings that adorned the halls and rooms of the Assyrian palaces, as well as the frescoes. The cuneiform texts are also among the important sources in our study of the fabrics in Mesopotamia, as they included valuable information about the fabrics, their names, types, colors and sources. The research talked about the names of fabrics, their types and sources of manufacture, as well as their various uses.

An unpublished Assyrian royal text belonging to King Adad-Nirari I (1307-1275 BC)

Khaled Ali Khattab

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 255-273
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76869

The Assyrian royal texts are among the most important texts that developed in the Assyrian eras, which took their style from the Sumerian and Babylonian peoples, where they were often written on stones, and this continued until the modern Assyrian era, the Assyrian royal inscriptions were directed primarily at the gods, so they were placed in places hidden from view.

The humanitarian dimension in the politics of the Assyrian kings

Mohammed Hamza Hussein

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 273-285
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76870

For more than four thousand years there is still news of the Assyrian royal campaigns against the neighboring kingdoms and peoples. It occupies a large part of the writings of Jewish rabbis and modern researchers, with different points of view, sometimes biased, and full of grudges and hatred against the Assyrians. This is what we notice on the books of the Old Testament (the Torah), and on the writings of a number of Western researchers who described the Assyrians with bad qualities that indicate a hardness of heart and looseness of the soul. Therefore, we worked to memorize the humanitarian dimension in the policy of the Assyrian kings by reviewing a number of related cuneiform texts, which contradicted what Jewish researchers and others worked to show on the Assyrians.

Conspiracies and revolutions against the Assyrian state

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 41-64
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76816

The Assyrian state, represented by its kings, faced many internal and external conspiracies. Indeed, on the internal level, we find that these conspiracies did not succeed except with the participation of one of the king’s sons or brothers (Tukulti Ninurta I, Shalmaneser III, Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal), and these conspiracies are not documented by the participants. It appears in the writings of the king who eliminated it, and this can be explained by the fact that the scribes working in the king’s palace could not document such a matter for fear of participating in, in case the conspiracy did not succeed. The reason for these revolutions is the system of inheriting the throne to the eldest son, and in the absence of this right, these conspiracies occur because the person excluded from the throne is not convinced of this procedure.

Hatra Kingdom: Political Situation

Jaber Khalil Ibrahim

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 31-49
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69688

The city of Hatra played an important role in the political situation due to its advantages and characteristics, especially its geographical location, which made it unique comparing to the other surrounding areas. The political roles of the city have been divided into three roles: the formation role, the gentlemen’s role and the kings role, and so far this has been the certified division among the researchers.

The Royal Streets obelisks in Nineveh between the Biblical Text and the Art Scene

Nawala Ahmed Al-Mutwally

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69690

The research deals with an Assyrian stone obelisk acquired by the Iraqi Museum in 1999 and displayed in the Mosul Civilization Museum with museum number 147624 - A.D. It is a rectangular obelisk that includes a text written in cuneiform dating back to the Assyrian king Sennacherib (704-681 BC). The text included the name of the king and his titles and a summary of his military actions as well as his construction works in "the city of Nineveh. The obelisk was appended to the penalties imposed on those who cross the street in which it was placed".

The ancient Iraqi philosophical thought is a base for Greek philosophy

Shaalan Kamel Ismail

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 113-118
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69695

It became known to researchers in the history of Greek philosophy that this thought was not a local Greek innovation in those distinct limited centuries between the eighth century to the third century BC. Rather, it is the outcome of human creativity presented by the ancient Iraqi civilization and other civilizations of the ancient East since many centuries BC and that huge intellectual outcome that the Greeks inherited during their prosperity in the sixth century BC. And they benefit from and sorted out a new thought that influenced their character and personality.

Rebellion and disobedience in the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom (911-612 BC)

Safwan Sami Saeed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 119-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69697

The military expansion of the Neo Assyrian period was different impulsive and reasons, the mass deportation of the peoples from the conquered countries and settling them as groups in side Assyria and in other countries which retained their ethnic unity in Assyria. the endless orders of these kings, all these factors had their great effect in creating a kind of rebellious behaviors of a sector of population in Assyrian kingdom. These rebellious movements against the king's authority and his influence which affected all the aspects of life in the kingdom. This rebellion bothered most of the Assyrian kings who thought that it is an indication to the kingdom weakness and its exhaustion politically and economically, so they tried through their different policies control that situation and put an end to it. The present research aims at shedding the light on the characteristics of that rebellion and knowing its reasons and the ways followed by the Assyrian kings to prevent it.

Two unpublished cuneiform texts from the Ur III Period

Khaled Haider Othman Al-Hafiz

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69698

There is no doubt that the third dynasty of Ur was of great importance in the history of ancient Iraq, as the geographical area of ​​the rule of this dynasty extended to include large areas of the borders of Iraq today, and this extension had a clear impact on all aspects of life, especially the economic ones. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the economy of the third dynasty of Ur, including the two texts under study. The first text was a text of the delivery of a group of donkeys with mention of their gender and period, while the other was a list of distribution of wheat and barley crops.

Samarra's ornamentation patterns and their influence on the ornamentation of Mosul in the third century AH / ninth century AD

Ahmed Qassim Aljumaah

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69443

The city of Samarra’ was distinguished by its architectural and artistic styles, and it was the capital of the Abbasid government instead of Baghdad when it was built by Caliph Al-Mu'tasim (221 AH / 836 AD). The research discusses the classifications of archaeologists of the three ornamentations of the city of Samarra, depending on the quality of its elements, its technical characteristics, the method of implementation, and the opinions of researchers in the sequence and arrangement of these models and their impact on the ornamentation of Mosul.