Main Subjects : ِAncient Archaeology and Islamic Archaeolgoy


Unpublished Mathematical Text from Tell IBZIKH in the Iraqi Museum

سالم یحیى خلف الجبوری

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 423-426
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76894

The Babylonians introduced the greatest of civilizational achievements in the history of mankind in different branches of knowledge, especially mathematics, because it is the language of sciences and the basis upon which the other sciences are built, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, geometry and etc. Actually, the achievement, that took place in Mesopotamia are regarded as the cornerstone of all inventions that appeared in different adjacent countries and in later different periods. Also, the remains and the information that came down to us underline the greatness of this people and the originality of this civilizationز

The Throne of Sin-Ahi-Ariba (Sennacherib) as a Model for the Assyrian Thrones

Yasmin Abdulkareem Mohameed Ali Alasady

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 235-243
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76866

The throne chair in the modern Assyrian era is one of the most prominent models of thrones in ancient Iraq, as the Assyrian artist excelled in depicting a large number of these forms of thrones on a variety of materials, the most prominent of which was depicted on the mural carvings that decorated the walls of the halls of the Assyrian palaces. The throne chair of King Sen - Achi - Ariba is one of the most important of those thrones in terms of its manufacture and decoration.

Punctuation marks in the Assyrian letters

Othman Ghanim Mohammad

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 245-254
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76868

Since the ancient Iraqis had invented writing thousands of years ago, they must have needed means or signs to clarify the purposes of writing. As the reader and the listener need special tones in the voice or symbols in writing, by which comprehension and awareness occurs when hearing speech and reading the written, which prompted them to be guided by signs that the situation requires to help in separating phrases.

Bronze bands on the wooden doors of Assyrian palaces and temples (selected models)

Yasmine Yassin Saleh

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 305-316
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76876

Archaeological excavations revealed many wooden doors covered with bronze tapes, on which various subjects of artistic scenes were executed. These gates were discovered in various Assyrian cities dating back to the Neo-Assyrian era. Examples of this were also found in Haddad hill in the Hamrin Basin area. These tapes express an important civilizational stage that has a clear impact on the later arts in terms of implementation and continuous experience.

An investigation of pure sciences from the archaeological buildings of Mosul during the Arab and Islamic eras

Ahmed Qassem Jumah

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76813

The research sheds light on the archaeological religious buildings that the city of Mosul was famous for, including shrines and shrines, and the designs that were adopted in their planning, as well as the planning of residential houses in the city of Mosul during the early Islamic eras, as well as many service buildings dating back to the Ottoman era, such as markets, inns, hotels and bathrooms, as well as buildings with Military character, such as the city wall of Mosul.

Administrative and governmental buildings in the city of Mosul during the Ottoman era

Akram Mohamed Yahya

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 205-234
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76857

The student of the civilization of Iraq and its Arab-Islamic heritage since the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate at the hands of the Mongols in the year 656 AH until the beginning of the Ottoman rule in the year 941 AH will find that the situation in Iraq in general and Mosul in particular was characterized by chaos and instability, and many invading foreign governments began to rule, starting with the Mongols and the Ilkhanids. Then the Jalayiris, then the Turkmen, and finally the Safavid Persians, who went too far in violating the cities of Iraq, one after the other, until the Ottomans came and took control of the country.

Al-Khawser River in Cuneiform Sources

Abdul Rahman Younis Abdul Rahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 158-176
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69780

The Khosr River is one of the ancient tributaries of the Tigris River, whose traces of its valley are still visible in the city of Nineveh to the present time. According to the discovered written evidence, the first mention of the Khosr River in cuneiform texts came in the records of the Middle Assyrian Period, specifically from the reign of King Tukulti - Abel - Ishara I (1115-1077 BC). As the name of the river was mentioned in the texts of this king in the form (Khosra), while it was mentioned in the texts of King Sennacherib (704-681 BC) in the form (Khosri), and this name has continued to this day despite the passage of 3000 years since Its inclusion in cuneiform texts.

Relative Pronoun and its Relative Clause in the Akkadian Language

Hassanein H. Abdulwahed

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 177-188
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69782

In spite of the fate that Akkadian is not regarded as a communication and writing language, it is still paid a great deal of attention by the scholars specializations in this language. This fact lies in that this language awash with information that helped the scholars in this field to make a kind of unification in the rules of the Arabits languages to solve their complications.
This study sheds light on important aspect of this language, namely, '' the relative pronoun in the Akkadian language '' this is an attempt to arabits the rules of these Akkadian language.
This study introduces the definition of the relation pronoun, its clause, its order and the antecedent pronoun of the relative pronoun. It also talks about the connection between the noun, verb and the relative pronoun. Similarly it tackles the omitted relative pronoun in the relative clause.
One of the most important features of the Akkadian language is that the relative pronoun is the basic element in the Akkadian sentence which creates, with its antecedent, a nominal sentence non acting clause in the parsing.

The University of Mosul and its archaeological activity

Amer Suleiman

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69367

It has been a philosophy of the university of Mosul and its scientific and cultural programs since its establishment to interact with the community, and one of the most prominent means of interaction was to uncover the ancient and Islamic monuments of the region and to preserve its popular heritage. Therefore, a prestigious delegation from the University of Mosul visited a number of archaeological sites near the city, especially those in which foreign excavation organizations work to learn about the scientific methods used in excavation. The first is the northern Nineveh Wall, the second is the Bashtabia Castle, and the last is the Sherikhan site, north of the University of Mosul.