Keywords : sculptures


Palm Trees in the Arts of Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 3-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169564

Iraqis through the periods considered Palm trees the most generous not only for their grandeur and lofty. They produce dates of variegated types which is considered one of the important nutrients for sustainable human life because it contains the essentials for healthy life. In the initial phase, the Iraqi artists drew on their pottery simple bands similar to a palmette but as they progressed, the style was developed during Protoliterate period (the Early Sumerian) and the best example is the Votive Vase from Warka. Then cluster of dates started to appear on the Votive Plaques and on cylinder seals. Few examples of palms appear on cylinder seals from the Akkadian period. Gudea appears with the tree. Ur-namu in his well known stele pour sacred water on a palm. From tell Al-Rimah (Old Karana) palm trunks in mud-bricks were used as attached decorative columns, The palace of Zimri-lim in Mari was adorned with painting of the blessed tree. The Assyrians considered the palm trees blessed, holy, and sacred, and their kings themselves paid great attention in depicting themselves with the palms. The concept of the significant of the palms as sacred identity continued and reached the city of Hatra which mentioned its heritage of the older Mesopotamian period. The palms were depicted with both the gods and humans.

Examples of wild animals on the Assyrian sculptures - selected samples

Yasmin Yassin Saleh

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 201-212
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69787

Information related to the animals in Mesopotamia comes from three sources, the first of which is the bones discovered through archaeological excavations, the second is the signs of cuneiform texts, and the third is the artistic scenes. The study of animal bones provides us with valuable information about the animal's type, sex, age, and in some cases, the diseases it previously had. The cuneiform texts provided information on the names of animals, as well as economic records on temple herds, as well as lists of animals that kings hunted or kept in their private parks.