Keywords : Gods

Demons and Evil Spirits in Ancient Iraq in Light of Cuneiform Texts

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 281-302
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169563

The civilization of ancient Iraq was distinguished by its religious beliefs from its inception until late periods. This was reflected in different aspects of life, including belief in the influence of spiritual forces, which are divided into the forces of good and evil. These forces were known since ancient times and developed over time with the development of ancient Iraqi beliefs, until they acquire in the first millennium BC. It takes an advanced position in the ancient Iraqi thought and belief, so that this was reflected in the mention of these powers in cuneiform texts such as texts of incantations, incantations and exorcisms, or in myths and other texts, or in the inscription of their forms on carvings and seals, inscriptions, statues and various monuments, or in finding ways to expel these Evil forces, as in the forms of sentinel compound at the entrances to palaces or temples to expel their harmful effects. This study deals with the spiritual forces of evil such as demons and evil spirits, based on cuneiform texts and some of their effects that were reflected in the behavior of society as a whole.

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.