Keywords : cuneiform texts

"A Study of Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Neo-Sumerian Period"

Hussein Mohammed Ridha Al-Hummeri

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 207-226
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176683

The economic texts are considered as one of the most important documents that reflect the economic condition of society, Neo-Sumerian Period  (2200-2004 B.C) is one of the most abundant regards the greatest period that provides important documents to study the economic a social conditions of that period, this research studied four unpublished cuneiform texts belong to Iraqi Museum, but their location and reference are unknown, among all of them are historical formulas, two of them date back to Šū-Suen (2037-2029 B.C), the forth king of Ur III dynasty, the other two date back to Ibbi-Suen (2028-2004 B.C)  the last king of this dynasty, the research includes three sections the first deals with the contents of the cuneiform texts, the second about transliteration, translations and vocabulary explanations of these texts, as well as making manual copies for these texts, since the origin of these texts doesn’t have determined the researcher studied the names of the months that were scribed on them and tried to determine their regions, the third section is  studying  personal names that mentioned in these texts these.

Unpublished Economic Akkadian Texts In The Iraq Museum

Luay Saea

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 165-183
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170124

        The cuneiform texts of the Akkadian period show a number of developmentsIn  economic   affairs, including  the  expansion  of  agricultural land and the diversity of agricultural  crops  This is because of  the  fertile  and plentiful pastures in the  region  as well as the  development of  methods , This  has helped  to  increase the surplus of agricultural production and the devlopment of  industrial crafts and   Increasing   interest in raising animals and their products and achieving surplus  production for  commercial purposes  as well on the expansion of trade exchanges as a result of large military conquests.   
The reserach consists of  the photocopies of these cuneiform texts  with  their original   photos  followed by a bibliography of  Arabic and  English soueces and an abstract in  English.

Unpublished Economic Texts from Ur III Dynasty

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 263-279
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169562

The various cuneiform texts dated back to Ur ш dynasty (2112_ 2004B.C) this period have varied greatly in the knowledge of many aspects of Mesopotamia , and economic texts are one of the most important types of economic circulation and the most common in the Ur ш dynasty as economic texts formed the vast majority of those texts, the thing that indicates the prosperity of the increasing economic activity in this period as it provided us with information about the political conditions that the Ur ш dynasty underwent at that time and which ultimately led to its demise .

Demons and Evil Spirits in Ancient Iraq in Light of Cuneiform Texts

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 281-302
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169563

The civilization of ancient Iraq was distinguished by its religious beliefs from its inception until late periods. This was reflected in different aspects of life, including belief in the influence of spiritual forces, which are divided into the forces of good and evil. These forces were known since ancient times and developed over time with the development of ancient Iraqi beliefs, until they acquire in the first millennium BC. It takes an advanced position in the ancient Iraqi thought and belief, so that this was reflected in the mention of these powers in cuneiform texts such as texts of incantations, incantations and exorcisms, or in myths and other texts, or in the inscription of their forms on carvings and seals, inscriptions, statues and various monuments, or in finding ways to expel these Evil forces, as in the forms of sentinel compound at the entrances to palaces or temples to expel their harmful effects. This study deals with the spiritual forces of evil such as demons and evil spirits, based on cuneiform texts and some of their effects that were reflected in the behavior of society as a whole.

The Brick Completion Receipts from the City of Pekasi, "Till Abu-Antik" “An Analytical Study of Unpublished Cuneiform Texts”

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 235-261
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169561

Between the finds discovered in the city of Pekasi and currently preserved in the treasuries of the Iraqi Museum was numbers of small tablet, its dimensions usually not exceeding three centimeters, with a dark black color, often invisible to the cuneiform signs written on it, all of it discovered during the excavations in Pekasi, "Till Abu-Antik" during five seasons. It seems that most of the tablets under study in this research belong to one person named (d MAR.TU-i-bi),that is meaning his own archive, as he hired workers in the Brick industry from different people, and it seems that he needed a large number of bricks, where we notice that he hired workers to manufacture brick throughout the month of July. The manufacture of bricks was of great importance from old Babylonian Period, as important information in this field reached us through cuneiform texts. It seems to us that these texts are daily diaries of ( d MAR.TU-i-bi), as we note that most of the texts of the study in this research date back to different days of The month of (July), without any indication of the duration of the lease or the materials received in return for their rent. In addition, it shows the urban movement witnessed by the city of Bekasi. As for the history of these texts that we have studied in this research, they go back to the twenty-fifth year (1724 BC) of the reign of King Samsu-iluna (1749-1712 BC).

Epilepsy in the Cuneiform Sources in Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 17-38
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169595

Epidemics and diseases have spread in Mesopotamia throughout the historical periods, for many reasons, for example, the religious and magic reasons, such as, gods wrath, magic and sorcery activities, and demons, or environmental causes, such as, air and water pollution, or because of the spread of insects and lesions, or disasters, like flood and destruction of cities.etc.., that cause diseases, because of pollution and starvation, moreover, wars and invasions, and the subsequent deterioration of the social and environmental situation, and even health condition, Moreover, economic situation. Infection and the speed that causes diseases, and other preseasons. Cuneiform sources and archaeological excavations were very popular in our knowledge of medicine, those texts mentioned a number of the names of diseases, their reasons, diagnose, and treatments. Our knowledge about medicine increased throughout the historical periods of Mesopotamia until it became very detailed in the first millennium BC. Among the diseases diagnosed by the Mesopotamian doctors is epilepsy.

Fabrics in the light of archaeological carvings and cuneiform texts in the modern Assyrian era

shaymaa alnuami

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 177-198
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76849

When studying the fabrics, it is necessary to rely on the fresco carvings that adorned the halls and rooms of the Assyrian palaces, as well as the frescoes. The cuneiform texts are also among the important sources in our study of the fabrics in Mesopotamia, as they included valuable information about the fabrics, their names, types, colors and sources. The research talked about the names of fabrics, their types and sources of manufacture, as well as their various uses.

Recipes for treating scorpion stings, snake and dog bites in the light of cuneiform texts from the library of Ashurbanipal

Muayyad Muhammad Suleiman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76842

The archaeological excavations that took place in various archaeological cities provided us with thousands of cuneiform texts that included various types of science and knowledge. One of these cities is the city of Nineveh, which was famous for its library full of thousands of cuneiform texts, which are preserved by the British Museum today. Today we chose a number of its texts, which included recipes for treating scorpion stings snakes and dog's bites are among the medical texts that abound in this library.