Keywords : Text


Akkadian Formulas in a New Cuneiform Text from Ur III Period Kept in the Iraqi Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169594

This is a study of  confiscated text by Iraq Museum (IM.235545).It is a grazing contract of three shepherds , to care for young bulls and donkeys ;which depend on milk and fodder in feeding and need good care by the shepherds to prevent their death. This text belongs to the second year of the reign of the Sumerian king Abi-Suen (2028-2002) B.C. It is a unique text because it belongs to Ur III period but it contains several Akkadian verbal formulaes and it probably belongs to the Sumerian city Iri-saĝrig.

Text from the time of Samuel, King of Larsa (1894-1866 BC) from Warsh hill

Ahmed Kamel

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 121-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76833

In the year 1990, Warsh hill, located in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, 25 km to the north-east of the city of Afak, was excavated. The excavators found two layers that dated the newest to the early Islamic era, while the oldest, which was with two building floors, dated to the ancient Babylonian era (Larsa Kingdom). In terms of the clay figure that was found on this site, which was of the economic type and dated to the years of the reign of four Larsa dynasty kings: Abi-Sari, Somuel, Nur-Adad and Sin Adnam.

Unpublished Mathematical Text from Tell IBZIKH in the Iraqi Museum

سالم یحیى خلف الجبوری

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 423-426
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76894

The Babylonians introduced the greatest of civilizational achievements in the history of mankind in different branches of knowledge, especially mathematics, because it is the language of sciences and the basis upon which the other sciences are built, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, geometry and etc. Actually, the achievement, that took place in Mesopotamia are regarded as the cornerstone of all inventions that appeared in different adjacent countries and in later different periods. Also, the remains and the information that came down to us underline the greatness of this people and the originality of this civilizationز

An unpublished cuneiform text from the Akkadian period

Khaled Haider Othman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76852

The research dealt with the translation and analysis of a cuneiform text dating back to the Akkadian era. The text consists of fifteen lines, eight of them on the obverse and seven on the back. The subject of the text included the delivery of a quantity of barley to persons, one of whom was "Blei Tap Tap", who worked as a clerk, who received a quantity of barley representing a ration for three months.
As for the second person, he received a quantity of 10 bale of barley as a ration for two months, who worked as a master builder. As for the third person, he received one bale of barley as a ration for two months.

Two unpublished cuneiform texts from the Ur III Period

Khaled Haider Othman Al-Hafiz

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69698

There is no doubt that the third dynasty of Ur was of great importance in the history of ancient Iraq, as the geographical area of ​​the rule of this dynasty extended to include large areas of the borders of Iraq today, and this extension had a clear impact on all aspects of life, especially the economic ones. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the economy of the third dynasty of Ur, including the two texts under study. The first text was a text of the delivery of a group of donkeys with mention of their gender and period, while the other was a list of distribution of wheat and barley crops.