Keywords : Mesopotamia


Aspects of Human Adaptation to Life in Mesopotamia in the Light of Pottery Scenes and Pictographic Writing

Sarood Talib Mohammed Taher

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 93-136
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174210

One of the most important turning points that resulted in the achievements of man and human civilization in history, is first, the great climate change that occurred when the last glacial retreat began about 18,000 years ago, with the Middle Stone Age approximately. Secondly, the stage of man’s transition from gathering food to producing food, which is one of the most important steps that man has taken on his way to stability in the lifestyle thousands of years ago, and because of its importance, researchers called it the Neolithic Revolution.
After the great change in the climate in the Near East region, human's confrontation with their new environment and trying to adapt to it constituted one of the most important challenges that man had to face, to ensure survival. And then this challenge led to the most important human discoveries, which are attempts to domesticate and agriculture: they began with attempts to grow grain, then succeeded little by little and became stable agriculture and led to the emergence of agricultural settlements, and this is mainly the content of adaptation. Because of the importance of that stage of human life in which writing was still non-existent and unknown, it was addressed by researchers from several aspects, and in light of archaeological evidence in terms of architectural styles, the development of stone tools, and pottery products (in terms of the accuracy of industry and techniques used), as well as Important studies were conducted on plant and animal remains, and other studies on the human lifestyle in the period following the discovery of agriculture.
Despite the aforementioned studies on the archaeological remains, which revealed the many facades of life in Mesopotamia during that stage, the visual picture of the manifestations of adaptation to life and the extent of human harmony with natural phenomena in light of stability in that period, remains an important part to complement what His image is research and studies. Fortunately, the images and scenes painted on pottery from the late Neolithic and Metallic Age serve us, which by studying and analyzing them we aim to see the reflection of the reality of man's interaction and adaptation with his natural environment. Thus, our models come from pottery scenes from the region of Mesopotamia (Iraq and Syria) in the time frame that starts from the period of Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid, and finally some models from the era of Warka and Jemda-Nasr, and these are the models that carry the elements that serve the objectives of the research. One of the objectives of the research is also to track the developments that occurred in these inscriptions, which later became elements of the first and oldest models of writing in history, cuneiform writing, from its pictorial stage, and this confirms more that the elements and symbols of writing are rooted in pottery inscriptions from preceding eras. We use some scenes on pottery models from present-day Iran and Turkey for the purpose of comparison.

Tattoos are a manifestation of the ancient Mesopotamian heritage

Abbas Abed Mandeel

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 97-129
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170122

The Tattoo knows as an art as a symbol of many concepts, and it been used for means, Purposes with meaning for natures. Although it is not a exclusive to one country or civilization However, it remains linked in one way or a mother to the culture if its own society. The tattoo is a form of a

 
popular artistic expression, linked with inherited customs and tradition, which is less interest in the Islamic culture in particular.
The tattoo spreads aesthetic hate and striking call for contemplation among the Iraqi tribes at both regions, the north and south, and it been used in different places of the body. Although, some believe that the tattooing is a disgrace, while it is widely used by tribes and in several regions, it is one of most important means of adornment for women in particular.

Russian Excavations in Sinjar Region, Northern Iraq

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 93-114
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169569

Russian excavations have played an important role during the sixties in discovering Hassuna civilization in the north of Mesopotamia; which helped to study and enrich our knowledge of different types of settlement in the most ancient agricultural site in the north-west of Mesopotamia. The excavation mission had chosen the series of Yarem tappeh hill as site for excavation, which came with great results. It discovered the remains of buildings known later as the " Tholoi" in addition to many other discoveries. This paper sheds light on these excavations and shows the results reached.

Epilepsy in the Cuneiform Sources in Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 17-38
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169595

Epidemics and diseases have spread in Mesopotamia throughout the historical periods, for many reasons, for example, the religious and magic reasons, such as, gods wrath, magic and sorcery activities, and demons, or environmental causes, such as, air and water pollution, or because of the spread of insects and lesions, or disasters, like flood and destruction of cities.etc.., that cause diseases, because of pollution and starvation, moreover, wars and invasions, and the subsequent deterioration of the social and environmental situation, and even health condition, Moreover, economic situation. Infection and the speed that causes diseases, and other preseasons. Cuneiform sources and archaeological excavations were very popular in our knowledge of medicine, those texts mentioned a number of the names of diseases, their reasons, diagnose, and treatments. Our knowledge about medicine increased throughout the historical periods of Mesopotamia until it became very detailed in the first millennium BC. Among the diseases diagnosed by the Mesopotamian doctors is epilepsy.

Animals on the Scenes of the Neo Sumerian Arts

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 185-202
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169578

In this research we review the pictures of the most important types of animals dating back to the new Sumerian period , as well as scenes of animals carried on the works of art, which is one of the most important sources of information in the subject of research. Various forms of animal types , such as bulls, lions, horses, etc., have been carried out on artistic works according to the rules and expressions of the design of the scenes, which emerged through the adopted models that depicted the plant and animal environment in which man lived. In addition, the scenes of these animals represent the importance of the history of the presence of these animals and their types on the land of Iraq. The research also highlights the most important scenes of animals dating back to the Sumerian period in order to know the artistic features and method of implementation of these artistic scenes. Is of great importance in old art in general and Sumerian art in particular based on what is available in the discovered evidence . On the other hand, this research aims at shedding light on the skill of the Sumerian artist in the implementation of works of art very accurately resulting from the accumulation of experience and communication across generations to a peak in the subsequent arts, as well as the elimination of monotony and space on the surfaces of those models concerned, and that these works – reflect an important civilization phase that has had a clear impact and we can infer this from some of the elected and implemented models on the relevant artistic scenes.