Keywords : civilization


The Achievements of Prehistoric Human in Iraqi Kurdistan and Manifestations of his Civilization Until the End of the Upper Paleolithic

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-186
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169568

The land of Kurdistan was distinguished by variations in terrain, environment and climate. The natural and climatic characteristics had a great influence in creating environments suitable for settlement. This helped to provide the basic necessities for living and its sources of water, plants and animals. It provided a home for early hunters and collectors of food to benefit from the rich environment resources. This led to the emergence of the first signs of the human pioneers, and the oldest evidence of human settlement in this area was found at the Burdat Balka site in the form of axes and shrapnel. The discovery of remnants of many civilized materials in the open and caves of the region, most of which contain stone tools for hunting activities. Indicates that hunting was a basic pattern of economic life for the first human groups during the ancient stone ages. The Shanidar Cave is one of the ancient caves within the northwestern extension of the Zagros Mountains, which was settled by humans during the Paleolithic period due to the suitability of the climatic condition of the cave site and the richness of the region with livelihoods and with springs and streams and the availability of hunting animals. This will deal with extensive research in order to contribute to giving a clear picture of the distinguished role of this region in the record of human civilization.

The Written Quotation Behind the Epic of Gilgamesh and Its visual Dimensions Through the Ancient Iraqi Civilization Judea and Hammurabi as a Model

Juhaina Hamid Hassani

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 97-116
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69694

The shape has been depicted as one of the most significant civilizational means which functions in human life, in terms of linking “senders” and “receivers” within the art of structural speech. It aims at making an awareness of what lies behind the event more than its apparent narrative, as it focuses more on descriptive manifestations at the expense of the actual content. For that reason, we worked on the re-interpretation of civilization, in accordance with the specialty of art, through its more graphic output, and in the light of the semiotic approach. We examined the structural signs in extremely precise detail of the partials, and then followed its uniform pattern within each single text, thus making way for the whole of the ancient Iraqi civilization in the form of three social reformers (Gilgamesh, Judea, and Hammurabi). These reformers share three works of fine art on the concept of how to maintain life and durability. The resulted concept was decided in favor of a symbolic approach towards good deeds, which were represented as the overall value of a sound life, and agreed upon as a common symbol of world religions, of which Islam is the seal. These various forms of expression are no longer restricted to a certain time, age, or category of people. On the contrary, their influence has expanded to all sorts of expressive fields, to an unlimited extent, as they started at a single point before expanding in accordance with social needs.