Keywords : ancient Iraq


Palm Trees in the Arts of Mesopotamia

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 3-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169564

Iraqis through the periods considered Palm trees the most generous not only for their grandeur and lofty. They produce dates of variegated types which is considered one of the important nutrients for sustainable human life because it contains the essentials for healthy life. In the initial phase, the Iraqi artists drew on their pottery simple bands similar to a palmette but as they progressed, the style was developed during Protoliterate period (the Early Sumerian) and the best example is the Votive Vase from Warka. Then cluster of dates started to appear on the Votive Plaques and on cylinder seals. Few examples of palms appear on cylinder seals from the Akkadian period. Gudea appears with the tree. Ur-namu in his well known stele pour sacred water on a palm. From tell Al-Rimah (Old Karana) palm trunks in mud-bricks were used as attached decorative columns, The palace of Zimri-lim in Mari was adorned with painting of the blessed tree. The Assyrians considered the palm trees blessed, holy, and sacred, and their kings themselves paid great attention in depicting themselves with the palms. The concept of the significant of the palms as sacred identity continued and reached the city of Hatra which mentioned its heritage of the older Mesopotamian period. The palms were depicted with both the gods and humans.

Bribery and its judgements in the old Iraqi law

Ahlam Saadallah Talbi

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 81-92
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76818

Bribery is one of the serious evils that have plagued societies since ancient times until the present time, given that the consequences of it are devastating to society in all its aspects, including moral, social and economic ones, as it has become part of the tradition that leads in society. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the role of the ancient kings of Iraq in combating this phenomenon and issuing deterrent legal rulings against bribes, some of whose rulings lead to death.

The settlement system in ancient Iraq and areas in the Arab world

Morning Jassim Shoukry

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 111-119
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76830

The settlement passed through two main temporal phases: the phase of collecting time, which took most of human life on earth, and then the phase of sustenance production, which began in the early Stone Age, that happened about 11,000 years BC, which witnessed the stages of real human development and the first steps towards our current civilization. The discovery of agriculture was the great turning point in the march of human civilizations is the main incentive for stability in fixed and permanent places where people seek refuge.

The role of surveying and archaeological excavations in writing the history of ancient Iraq

Sabah Jassim Al Shukri

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69691

The research deals with recent studies in the field of archaeology during the last four decades of the last century. The survey work is one of the broad areas of research in archeology. The research also focuses on the importance of survey work and its role in documenting everything found on the surface of archaeological sites, as well as describing the stratigraphic succession of those sites. It also provides a rich background for the preparation of studies related to urban planning, such as the system of distributing settlements on the land, their different areas, the number of their heights, the irrigation networks extending in them and the distribution of small agricultural villages around them.

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.