Keywords : cuneiform

Two New Cuneiform Texts from Iri-Sağrig Including Akkadian Formulas

Ali Mohammed Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 239-253
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.170127

This study concerns two unpublished confiscated cuneiform texts kept in the Iraq Museum belong to Ur III period (2112 – 2002) B.C.E. (IM. 235570); (IM.235558 ). Although, the texts belong to Ur III period, they contain Akkadian formulas. The subject of these texts is an oath in the name of the king by herdsmen of bulls and donkeys.                       

Some of Caravan Route Cities and Road Stations Throughout Ancient And Islamic History in the Light of Cuneiform Texts and Arabic Sources

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 95-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169566

Most modern-time and extinct medieval caravanserais relatively belong to the ancient periods of human civilization. They were Usually chosen in particular spots along major trade routes, some of these caravansaries have acquired special significance in Mesopotamia that they have been considered one of the most important focal points of reference in the field of trade Geography and Trade History studies. These caravansaries used to provide trading caravans with vital logistic and economic services needful throughout the caravans’ passage and camping along the desert. Among the various services these caravansaries usually offer are the provision of water, food and other travel necessities such as medical and mail services, beside supplying the caravans with guides, scouts and routes experts (khabir). Some of these caravansaries ((wikalat or Khanat) have later expanded so as to become trading towns along the trade routes which prospered in the ancient Near East in general and in Mesopotamia in particular which gave rise to some famous silk road, besides incense and spices routes.

Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Ur III Period (2112-2004 B.C) in Suleimaniya Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 95-112
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169573

The research dealt with the study, analysis and translation of four unpublished cuneiform texts from the third dynasty of Ur. The texts belong to the Museum of Suleimaniya. The history of the texts came back to the time of the two kings Šu-Suen (2029-2037 BC) and Ibi-Suen (2028-2004 BC) and that's based on the historical formulas that are mentioned in the texts. The contents is about the delivery receipts- to distribute a group of sheep and grain which was used in the manufacture of bread.

Akkadian Formulas in a New Cuneiform Text from Ur III Period Kept in the Iraqi Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169594

This is a study of  confiscated text by Iraq Museum (IM.235545).It is a grazing contract of three shepherds , to care for young bulls and donkeys ;which depend on milk and fodder in feeding and need good care by the shepherds to prevent their death. This text belongs to the second year of the reign of the Sumerian king Abi-Suen (2028-2002) B.C. It is a unique text because it belongs to Ur III period but it contains several Akkadian verbal formulaes and it probably belongs to the Sumerian city Iri-saĝrig.

An unpublished cuneiform text from the Akkadian period

Khaled Haider Othman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76852

The research dealt with the translation and analysis of a cuneiform text dating back to the Akkadian era. The text consists of fifteen lines, eight of them on the obverse and seven on the back. The subject of the text included the delivery of a quantity of barley to persons, one of whom was "Blei Tap Tap", who worked as a clerk, who received a quantity of barley representing a ration for three months.
As for the second person, he received a quantity of 10 bale of barley as a ration for two months, who worked as a master builder. As for the third person, he received one bale of barley as a ration for two months.

Unpublished Akkadian cuneiform texts from the Iraqi Museum

mahmood hamid ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 329-349
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76883

In 1999, a group of archaeological pieces were seized at the Iraqi-Jordanian border, totaling (1016) pieces, the cuneiform texts representing the largest part of them, and these pieces were confiscated for the benefit of the General Authority for Antiquities and Heritage (the Iraqi Museum). Note that the texts date back to the Akkadian era and are of great importance, as they go back to an era in which the country was united under a unified central government under the leadership of King Sharrukin the Akkadian. What increases the importance of these texts is that they came from the cities of the southern part of Iraq known as the land of Sumer, and it was written in the Sumerian language under the Akkadian rule.

Two unpublished cuneiform texts from the Ur III Period

Khaled Haider Othman Al-Hafiz

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 133-143
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69698

There is no doubt that the third dynasty of Ur was of great importance in the history of ancient Iraq, as the geographical area of ​​the rule of this dynasty extended to include large areas of the borders of Iraq today, and this extension had a clear impact on all aspects of life, especially the economic ones. The cuneiform texts provided us with valuable information about the economy of the third dynasty of Ur, including the two texts under study. The first text was a text of the delivery of a group of donkeys with mention of their gender and period, while the other was a list of distribution of wheat and barley crops.

Water supply and disposal in Assyria in the light of cuneiform sources.

Eman Hani Alloush

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69779

The supply and disposal of water in the cities and the capital in ancient Iraq is one of the important civilizational achievements and one of the most important elements of civilization whose influence has spread to the civilizations of the neighboring countries of Mesopotamia. The cuneiform texts and archaeological evidence reflected the importance of providing water to the population in ancient Iraq, especially the modern Assyrian era, as well as finding ways to drain the (heavy) wastewater.