Keywords : Cuneiform

Some of Caravan Route Cities and Road Stations Throughout Ancient And Islamic History in the Light of Cuneiform Texts and Arabic Sources

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 95-132
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169566

Most modern-time and extinct medieval caravanserais relatively belong to the ancient periods of human civilization. They were Usually chosen in particular spots along major trade routes, some of these caravansaries have acquired special significance in Mesopotamia that they have been considered one of the most important focal points of reference in the field of trade Geography and Trade History studies. These caravansaries used to provide trading caravans with vital logistic and economic services needful throughout the caravans’ passage and camping along the desert. Among the various services these caravansaries usually offer are the provision of water, food and other travel necessities such as medical and mail services, beside supplying the caravans with guides, scouts and routes experts (khabir). Some of these caravansaries ((wikalat or Khanat) have later expanded so as to become trading towns along the trade routes which prospered in the ancient Near East in general and in Mesopotamia in particular which gave rise to some famous silk road, besides incense and spices routes.

Akkadian Formulas in a New Cuneiform Text from Ur III Period Kept in the Iraqi Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 7-16
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169594

This is a study of  confiscated text by Iraq Museum (IM.235545).It is a grazing contract of three shepherds , to care for young bulls and donkeys ;which depend on milk and fodder in feeding and need good care by the shepherds to prevent their death. This text belongs to the second year of the reign of the Sumerian king Abi-Suen (2028-2002) B.C. It is a unique text because it belongs to Ur III period but it contains several Akkadian verbal formulaes and it probably belongs to the Sumerian city Iri-saĝrig.

Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Ur III Period (2112-2004 B.C) in Suleimaniya Museum

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 95-112
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169573

The research dealt with the study, analysis and translation of four unpublished cuneiform texts from the third dynasty of Ur. The texts belong to the Museum of Suleimaniya. The history of the texts came back to the time of the two kings Šu-Suen (2029-2037 BC) and Ibi-Suen (2028-2004 BC) and that's based on the historical formulas that are mentioned in the texts. The contents is about the delivery receipts- to distribute a group of sheep and grain which was used in the manufacture of bread.