Keywords : evil spirits


Assyrian's Concerns of Fear and Anxiety Regarding Demons and Evil Spirits.

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 45-70
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169556

Since ancient times, the Assyrians believed that there are occult powers and a world of evil spirits and demons represented by evil gods that cause concern and spread fear and dread in the souls of the population by sending tribulations and diseases to people. All of this was made clear by many texts and monuments that were discovered, therefore, they followed many methods and ways that were reflected in their behaviors, to get rid of their harm, this was represented in following several religious rituals, including prayers, advancement, and casting religious spells, in addition to the expiation rituals of Namburbe NAMBÚR-BI that have a religious and magical nature to keep away the evil, and as they came up with the idea of sheltering spirits, Shido and Mason, represented by the winged bulls that were placed at the city gates, entrances to palaces and small statues that were placed in the foundations of the walls and floors of rooms.

Demons and Evil Spirits in Ancient Iraq in Light of Cuneiform Texts

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 281-302
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169563

The civilization of ancient Iraq was distinguished by its religious beliefs from its inception until late periods. This was reflected in different aspects of life, including belief in the influence of spiritual forces, which are divided into the forces of good and evil. These forces were known since ancient times and developed over time with the development of ancient Iraqi beliefs, until they acquire in the first millennium BC. It takes an advanced position in the ancient Iraqi thought and belief, so that this was reflected in the mention of these powers in cuneiform texts such as texts of incantations, incantations and exorcisms, or in myths and other texts, or in the inscription of their forms on carvings and seals, inscriptions, statues and various monuments, or in finding ways to expel these Evil forces, as in the forms of sentinel compound at the entrances to palaces or temples to expel their harmful effects. This study deals with the spiritual forces of evil such as demons and evil spirits, based on cuneiform texts and some of their effects that were reflected in the behavior of society as a whole.