Keywords : water


Appearances of Cleanliness in the Hittite Society

Hani Abdulgani Abdullah

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 205-221
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169589

The contents of the Hittite texts and the evidence of the archaeological survey in many of the sites covered by the excavations in the countries of Anatolia reflect the fact that there are indications of the Hittite interest in cleanliness, and that the reasons for this interest were not limited to the importance of cleanliness, as it reflects an actual need for all members of society, rulers and ruled, in order to preserve not any the manifestations of cleanliness and the creation of a healthy, clean environment, but also extended to be part of the content of the religious rituals and rituals that oblige individuals to this concern and push them to adhere to cleanliness in general From this standpoint, the research idea crystallized to highlight this important aspect of the Hittite civilization, because it has a direct relation to the daily lives of individuals and their religious beliefs, and the research included four aspects of the manifestations of cleanliness, the first axis dealt with the concept of cleanliness, and the second axis dealt with personal hygiene and included, Washing, nails, hair, shaving and cleaning clothes, the third axis dealt with cleanliness of places and included, cleanliness of temples, cleanliness of ovens and kitchens, water pool, and cleanliness of alleys and streets, while the fourth axis dealt with cleaning materials and included, water, plants and herbs, and the research appended to a conclusion that included a number of conclusions , As well as some illustrations.

Water supply and disposal in Assyria in the light of cuneiform sources.

Eman Hani Alloush

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69779

The supply and disposal of water in the cities and the capital in ancient Iraq is one of the important civilizational achievements and one of the most important elements of civilization whose influence has spread to the civilizations of the neighboring countries of Mesopotamia. The cuneiform texts and archaeological evidence reflected the importance of providing water to the population in ancient Iraq, especially the modern Assyrian era, as well as finding ways to drain the (heavy) wastewater.