Keywords : excavation

The Sickle Industry Developed In Ancient Iraq During The Mesolithic To The End Of Chalcolithic

Athar Alrafedain, 2021, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 271-287
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2021.169592

During the Prehistoric period, Human is used tools that helped him in the process of cutting plants or hunting animals, and then he developed his tools in a manner suitable for their use and became a variety, and among those tools is the sickle that he used even after emergence of agriculture. It continued to be used despite the different available raw materials throughout the chronology ages. Sickles began to be used since the stone ages before the emergence of agriculture until now. As for the industry materials for the blade, it was made according to the availability of raw materials, including bones and types of stones during the stone ages, and then the clay was used during the Ubaid period, and this is according to what the excavations revealed in the archaeological sites.

Excavations at Quynajik hill: Past Achievements and Future Hopes

Jaber Khalil Ibrahim

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 31-40
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76815

Qoynajik hill is of cultural importance, as it includes the palaces and temples of the Assyrian kings. That is why it attracted the first excavators, starting with the British Consul Claudius Rich, who drew an accurate map of the city of Nineveh and conducted scattered excavations in the hill in 1820. His writings on the antiquities of Iraq, especially Quynajik Hill, stimulated European governments, as France sent Paul Emile Botta." To excavate in Nineveh in 1842, followed by Henry Layard, the British prospector, and his assistant, Hormuzd Rassam, in 1845, whose excavations continued until 1851. Because of the importance of his discovery, which adorns the British Museum, the English excavators continued their excavations in this hill, which was characterized by randomness, Until the prospectors corrected their course when Leonard Kink took over, and followed by Campbell Thompson and Max Mallowan. 

The role of surveying and archaeological excavations in writing the history of ancient Iraq

Sabah Jassim Al Shukri

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69691

The research deals with recent studies in the field of archaeology during the last four decades of the last century. The survey work is one of the broad areas of research in archeology. The research also focuses on the importance of survey work and its role in documenting everything found on the surface of archaeological sites, as well as describing the stratigraphic succession of those sites. It also provides a rich background for the preparation of studies related to urban planning, such as the system of distributing settlements on the land, their different areas, the number of their heights, the irrigation networks extending in them and the distribution of small agricultural villages around them.