Keywords : Iraqi

Unpublished Mathematical Text from Tell IBZIKH in the Iraqi Museum

سالم یحیى خلف الجبوری

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 423-426
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76894

The Babylonians introduced the greatest of civilizational achievements in the history of mankind in different branches of knowledge, especially mathematics, because it is the language of sciences and the basis upon which the other sciences are built, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, geometry and etc. Actually, the achievement, that took place in Mesopotamia are regarded as the cornerstone of all inventions that appeared in different adjacent countries and in later different periods. Also, the remains and the information that came down to us underline the greatness of this people and the originality of this civilizationز

Unpublished Akkadian cuneiform texts from the Iraqi Museum

mahmood hamid ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 329-349
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76883

In 1999, a group of archaeological pieces were seized at the Iraqi-Jordanian border, totaling (1016) pieces, the cuneiform texts representing the largest part of them, and these pieces were confiscated for the benefit of the General Authority for Antiquities and Heritage (the Iraqi Museum). Note that the texts date back to the Akkadian era and are of great importance, as they go back to an era in which the country was united under a unified central government under the leadership of King Sharrukin the Akkadian. What increases the importance of these texts is that they came from the cities of the southern part of Iraq known as the land of Sumer, and it was written in the Sumerian language under the Akkadian rule.

The Written Quotation Behind the Epic of Gilgamesh and Its visual Dimensions Through the Ancient Iraqi Civilization Judea and Hammurabi as a Model

Juhaina Hamid Hassani

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 97-116
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69694

The shape has been depicted as one of the most significant civilizational means which functions in human life, in terms of linking “senders” and “receivers” within the art of structural speech. It aims at making an awareness of what lies behind the event more than its apparent narrative, as it focuses more on descriptive manifestations at the expense of the actual content. For that reason, we worked on the re-interpretation of civilization, in accordance with the specialty of art, through its more graphic output, and in the light of the semiotic approach. We examined the structural signs in extremely precise detail of the partials, and then followed its uniform pattern within each single text, thus making way for the whole of the ancient Iraqi civilization in the form of three social reformers (Gilgamesh, Judea, and Hammurabi). These reformers share three works of fine art on the concept of how to maintain life and durability. The resulted concept was decided in favor of a symbolic approach towards good deeds, which were represented as the overall value of a sound life, and agreed upon as a common symbol of world religions, of which Islam is the seal. These various forms of expression are no longer restricted to a certain time, age, or category of people. On the contrary, their influence has expanded to all sorts of expressive fields, to an unlimited extent, as they started at a single point before expanding in accordance with social needs.

The ancient Iraqi philosophical thought is a base for Greek philosophy

Shaalan Kamel Ismail

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 113-118
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69695

It became known to researchers in the history of Greek philosophy that this thought was not a local Greek innovation in those distinct limited centuries between the eighth century to the third century BC. Rather, it is the outcome of human creativity presented by the ancient Iraqi civilization and other civilizations of the ancient East since many centuries BC and that huge intellectual outcome that the Greeks inherited during their prosperity in the sixth century BC. And they benefit from and sorted out a new thought that influenced their character and personality.