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ISSN:  2304-103X (Print) ISSN: 2664-2794 (online)   Editor: Professor Khalid Salim Ismael, College of archaeology, University of Mosul. Editorial Board: https://athar.mosuljournals.com/journal/editorial.board   Frequency: 2 issues per year Athar Al-Rafedain Journal (AARJ) is a trusted scientific journal that examines the monuments of Iraq and the ancient Near East, as well as ancient languages with their dialects and comparative studies, as well as cuneiform writings and ancient fonts, and it is also concerned with ancient history and...
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Manifestations the Wisdom and its Dimensions in the Speeches of the Kings of the Sargonic Dynasty

Safwan Sami Saeed Al-Rifai

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3-35
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174205

The research aims, as appears from its title, to study an important and prominent aspect of the leadership personality of the kings of Assyria. The nature of its features and dimensions are embodied in the contents of the speeches of the kings of the Sargonic dynasty and their 
immortal exploits in managing the relationships of their vast kingdom and addressing its various issues with a high level of wisdom and acumen that aims to look with insight and contemplation. In the depths of matters and their details, extrapolating events, studying them, extracting experiences from them, and judging them. Every statement or discourse that called for an honor, an exhortation, a reminder, a censure, or a prohibition against an ugly act represented one of the aspects of wisdom they had in cultivating souls, achieving justice, acting upon it, and arranging matters toward their correctness. Proceeding from this vision, the study came to investigate the manifestations of wisdom in the sayings of these kings and their correspondence, and to know its dimensions by standing at some of their behaviors and knowing the truth of their policies in managing their kingdom.

The Land Yassan during the 18th Century BC.

Farouk Ismail

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 35-56
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174206

There are many Akkadian texts from the ancient Babylonian period mentioning a country called “Yassan”, located in northern Mesopotamia. It is not well known in recent studies, and where it’s located, what is its geographical framework, who governed it, and what is the nature of its relationship with the contemporary political entities neighboring it? This is the problem that the research aimed to clarify; Depending on the available textual evidence.
It became clear that Yassan is the name of a country on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, north of the town of Tal Afar, west of Mosul, which played an important role in the conflicts and alliances that arose in the region of Syrian Jazīra and Mount Sinjar, during the reign of Zimri-Lim king of Mari, and after the collapse of the Kingdom of Mari, and the division of the region into many small political entities.
The research traces the history of the country during the 18th century B.C., during the reign of two kings in Razama (North), which was its capital, and they are known in the texts of Mari, Šubat-Enlil and Qaṭṭara, and it shows the nature of its relations with the neighboring political forces, as well as distant ones such as the Kingdom of Yamḫad / Ḫalab "Aleppo" which her king (Ḫammurabi) had begun to gain loyalists, and extend his influence in those areas, and trying to precede the expansion of the influence of Ḫammurabi king of Babylon there.

The Contents of School Texts from Ancient Iraq in Light of Published and Unpublished Cuneiform Texts

Murad Raad Mashkor

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 57-92
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174207

School texts are texts that go back to the early Sumerian and Babylonian eras، and they come in second place in terms of the clay tablets discovered، and they include a group of texts that were prepared to teach beginners reading and writing and to introduce them to the Sumerian and Akkadian languages، and it includes lists of the cuneiform signs in the Akkadian and Sumerian languages. School texts do not include cuneiform disc-shaped texts only، but there are many forms of school texts، as they can be rectangular، square or circular، and some of them are organized and divided into several columns and others are randomly written، and they have different sizes as well، and the shape of the text may indicate its content There are school texts that are difficult for researchers to differentiate between them and other texts، as they are made with great care and attention، and are written in elegant and well-executed cuneiform script.
     As for the contents of the texts، they are multiple، they may contain repeated signs or words for the purpose of learning to write the cuneiform script only، and they may contain lexical texts that facilitate the student's translation of texts from Sumerian to Akkadian and vice versa، and these lists may represent more than just copying or memorization، as each stage One of the stages of lexical education serves an educational purpose. School texts may include literary letters and texts such as proverbs and hymns، artistic texts for singers، and legal texts such as learning to write commercial contracts، and they may contain legal texts such as mathematical and engineering exercises and others.

Aspects of Human Adaptation to Life in Mesopotamia in the Light of Pottery Scenes and Pictographic Writing

Sarood Talib Mohammed Taher

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 93-136
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174210

One of the most important turning points that resulted in the achievements of man and human civilization in history, is first, the great climate change that occurred when the last glacial retreat began about 18,000 years ago, with the Middle Stone Age approximately. Secondly, the stage of man’s transition from gathering food to producing food, which is one of the most important steps that man has taken on his way to stability in the lifestyle thousands of years ago, and because of its importance, researchers called it the Neolithic Revolution.
After the great change in the climate in the Near East region, human's confrontation with their new environment and trying to adapt to it constituted one of the most important challenges that man had to face, to ensure survival. And then this challenge led to the most important human discoveries, which are attempts to domesticate and agriculture: they began with attempts to grow grain, then succeeded little by little and became stable agriculture and led to the emergence of agricultural settlements, and this is mainly the content of adaptation. Because of the importance of that stage of human life in which writing was still non-existent and unknown, it was addressed by researchers from several aspects, and in light of archaeological evidence in terms of architectural styles, the development of stone tools, and pottery products (in terms of the accuracy of industry and techniques used), as well as Important studies were conducted on plant and animal remains, and other studies on the human lifestyle in the period following the discovery of agriculture.
Despite the aforementioned studies on the archaeological remains, which revealed the many facades of life in Mesopotamia during that stage, the visual picture of the manifestations of adaptation to life and the extent of human harmony with natural phenomena in light of stability in that period, remains an important part to complement what His image is research and studies. Fortunately, the images and scenes painted on pottery from the late Neolithic and Metallic Age serve us, which by studying and analyzing them we aim to see the reflection of the reality of man's interaction and adaptation with his natural environment. Thus, our models come from pottery scenes from the region of Mesopotamia (Iraq and Syria) in the time frame that starts from the period of Hassuna, Samarra, Halaf and Ubaid, and finally some models from the era of Warka and Jemda-Nasr, and these are the models that carry the elements that serve the objectives of the research. One of the objectives of the research is also to track the developments that occurred in these inscriptions, which later became elements of the first and oldest models of writing in history, cuneiform writing, from its pictorial stage, and this confirms more that the elements and symbols of writing are rooted in pottery inscriptions from preceding eras. We use some scenes on pottery models from present-day Iran and Turkey for the purpose of comparison.

Developmental Stages and Engineering Technical Treatments for the Architecture of the Structural Construction of the Ziggurat Building in the Cities of Central and Southern Ancient Iraq (Selected Samples)

Munah Abdel Karim Hussein Al – Qaisi

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 137-164
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174211

The architecture in ancient Iraq has been taking care of the architecture of the ziggurat building and the renewal of its construction، as it is one of the most important religious buildings within the religious architecture that occupies the centers of the ancient Iraqi cities، as the ancient Iraqi society preserved it in its form and architectural identity that reflects its religious thought through time. From this، the research focused on the study of architecture and engineering treatments that became as a new technology within the stages of building the structural construction of the new ziggurat buildings in the centers of the ancient Iraqi cities.

Irrigation and Cultivation of Nimrud City during the Reign of the King Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 B.C): A Study in the Light of the Cuneiform Texts and the Results of Archaeological Excavations

Mustafa Yahya Faraj

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 165-180
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174212

The Assyrian kings paid great attention to irrigation and cultivation. The irrigation projects were one of the important achievements of the Assyrian kings, which contributed greatly to supporting the population and urban expansion of the Assyrian cities. The water canal established by King Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC) in the city of Nimrud is an important project. The purpose of this canal was to permanently irrigate the agricultural lands in the Nimrud plain in addition to establishing orchards.
This research deals with the details of irrigation and cultivation based on the information from the cuneiform texts as with physical evidence and archaeological surveys.

Polysemy and Homonymy Conjugation in Syriac Language (Regular Verbs Example)

Rafat Najeeb Fatuhee

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 181-203
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174213

polysemy and homonymy are one of many phenomena which happen in some languages if not all، Syriac language had a Characteristics thing among the Semitic languages. that happened in conjugation verbs with different cases and different tenses، it is very important in common، polysemy mean one-word with two or more meanings; We will shed light on this phenomenon and what was stated in the differences of opinion، will include several axes in which we deal with the phenomenon in Subscriber identity verbal language and idiomatically، followed by the hadith in defining the verb in the verb in Syriac، and then we will go into the conjugation of these verbs and explain how the polysemy comes is in the verb.

Heritage Outposts in Al-Muthanna Governorate (Alghuleidha, Alaarzyiat and Alsafi Posts as an Example)

Ali Obaid Shalgham

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 203-232
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174214

The police stations or military stations used for guarding, to maintain border security. The emergence of the police station is relatively recent, as it has been linked to the emergence of the coast guard, and the use of the police station is in desert areas, cities, villages, borders, and near the coasts of the seas and the banks of rivers.
        The police station played a prominent role in the various eras that passed in Iraq, and their role became evident in the first half of the twentieth century, especially in the thirties of the aforementioned century as they represented the foundations of the imposition of power, hegemony and the presence of the state in the cities and tribal areas that used to revolt and rebel against the central authority for various reasons related to poor services and poor health conditions.

The History of Human Dwelling of the Earth According to Genesis

Raed Rahim Khuder

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 233-266
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174216

What is the history of human habitation on earth in the Torah? Did the Torah specify a time for that? To answer, we say that talking about the time of the earth’s habitation is a thorny and sprawling topic, because of the multiple theories that have been put forward and discussed on this topic, whether by geologists, archaeologists, history or religions, but this research deals with (a new answer based on a new hypothesis that adopted the Book of Genesis: a major source to the hypothesis is associated with determining the time of the Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him). Where our aim is to delve into what the predecessors neglected about the ages of the prophets mentioned in the Book of Genesis, in its two parts, the young and old ages), putting the majority of our study and its answer on what was mentioned in the Book of Genesis, the eighth edition issued by Dar Al-Mashreq in Beirut) and its parallels in the Bible and the Holy Qur’an as required by the study of indications, while fixing the observations and questions that may be raised on such a type of hypothesis, discussing them and linking them to archaeological studies, interpretations and resources specialized in the subject, a scientific interpretation (may) open a new horizon for reconsidering the biblical codes far from any ideology or theory that tries to find justifications applicable to our current era However, it does not correspond to the age of the Torah.

Hurrian Architecture in the Light of Excavations Tell Basmusian Tell Al-Daim and Tell Asfour

Suhaila Kazem Mdalool

Athar Alrafedain, 2022, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 267-282
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2022.174219

Tell Basmosian, Tell Al-Daim, and Tell Asfour are among the locations in which the (Hurrians) people settled there and they had an architectural and economic imprint in it in the middle of the second millennium B.C.
And because of the closeness of this location to the kingdom of (Arabkha) as well as the city of (Nuzi) which is affiliated with it and from the architectural remains that it was found in these locations, as it was revealed after studying it by specialists in the social, economic, religious and political life of these peoples.
And for the lack of information about these people, we decided to study their architecture by selecting four samples that the study tackled، including the Basmosian Temples and architectural remains of resident houses in Al-Daim Tell and Defensive wall as well as some houses in Asfour Tell.

Unpublished Economic Texts from the Reign of King Shu-Suen

Khalid Salim Ismael; Shaymaa Waleed Abdulrahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-61
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164597

This collections; is from the new  confiscated texts  kept in the Iraqi Museum ; consists of ( 22) cuneiform texts  dated to the Ur  Ш period  (2012-2002)BC. And the date formulae on them belongs to the years 6th -7th of the reign of king Shu-Suen (2037-2029) BC. Most of the texts deal with barley flour expenses. The main personal names mentioned in the texts are : (puzur-Eshtar , ur-dlama , e2 – sag – il – la , lugal-ša3-la2 , ur-dba-ba  ,   ur-al-la ) .

The Epic of Gilgamish :The Origin and Effectiveness

Ali Yaseen. Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 7-32
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164596

Epic of Gilgamesh of Mesopotamian literatures is considered one of the oldest mythical heroes of ancient civilization, it has been passed on from ancient Iraq to the ancient near eastern nations. It is everlasting because it dealt with essential subject concern human being. On the other hand it represent contradiction of live such as : good and evil; strong and weak ; rich and poor; life and death etc.., all of these are related to gods wishes. These subject were and are occupy human being’s thinking because it is effect his everyday life therefore his effort either the avoid it or to get rid of it. These subjects drew attention of unknown Sumerian scholar who wrote it down in poetic form according to his personal , social, religious and political situations. 

The Conservation of clay Tablets from Al-Sulaymaniyah Museum

Khalid Salim Ismael; Hagar Mohammad Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164598

The conservation and cleaning of the clay Tablets have the same importance of historical content . Clay tablets vary in their volumes and shapes ; some of them are small and some are big others are very big ; whereas their shape is either rectangle or square .Since the clay tablets were made of clay which contains different kinds of salt which were formed as a result of temperature change and high or low  humidity ;therefore ,there are two kinds of clay tablets found in the archaeological sites ,they enter the lab for conservation and cleaning .The first kind is unbaked which were dried under the sun. The second kind is the basically baked or fund in a burned  archaeological site . This article shows the stages of the conservation of the clay tablets from the moment  of finding it until finishing the conservation , in order to be presented in the museum or to the researchers in a clear and clean way to be studied easily.

History of Archaeological Excavations at Nineveh city

Abdulsattar Ahmed Hussein; Munther Ali Qasim

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 191-214
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164603

Mentioning the names of some ancient cities, including the city of Nineveh in the Bible and the historical narrations of Greek and Roman classical historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon, had the greatest influence in the movement of some European travelers and tourists to the East, such as the Jewish tourist of Spain, Benjamin of Tudela, in 1160.
The former, who visited Nineveh and recorded the activities of his journey that stimulated the activities of the European scientific institutions in the nineteenth century  and sent its exploratory expeditions such as the French mission headed by the French consul Paul-Ēmile Botta in 1842 and the English mission headed by Austen Henry Layard in 1845. But, the archaeological discoveries carried out by those was closer to rummage rather than, namely, excavations. The biggest concern of these amateurs was to obtain precious and beautiful pieces to decorate the museums of the Western countries. However, no importance was attached to the scientific documentation of the discovered pieces. What resulted from those errors, the loss of valuable archaeological information.
The scientific excavations phase in Iraq, in general, did not begin until the beginning of the twentieth century when the German missions began drilling in the cities of Babylon and Ashur, but the beginning of World War I prevented the continuation of the foreign exploration works in Iraq.
Then, the final stage of the history of excavations was represented by the national excavations in 1938 after the enactment of a law concerned with archeology in 1936. On this basis, this modest research was divided into a number of chapters. The first of which discussed the city of Nineveh in terms of its geographical location, the importance of the city, its naming, history and layouts. The second chapter dealt with the activities of travelers and tourists. The third chapter dealt with the activities of the amateur prospectors. And, the fourth which is the final chapter studied the scientific exploration phase.

The Agricultural Products Marketing in Ancient Iraqi Cities

Hussein Dhahir Hammood.; Haifa Ahmed Abid

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 79-95
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164599

Tackling the topic of agricultural products marketing at the ancient ages refers to the evaluation of economy in Iraq at that time. Throughout the study of cuneiform texts, it is clear that structure of Iraqi economy was based on the agricultural production. The marketing activity depends on a group of essential factors, like the ones that are related to the type of agricultural products, the quantities of surplus products, the perfect transporting, and freedom exchanging and fixed tariffs for prices, the adequate environmental conditions and the marketing organized by kings and rulers of the Iraqi cities at that time and basically related to the foundation of temple which was responsible for all transactions and the processes of trading exchange.

Geometric Motifs in ancient Sumerian Art

Ghassan Mardan

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 189-199
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69784

Ornamentations in Ancient Sumerian Art are very important in studies related to ruins of ancient arts. Artists in ancient Mesopotamia have paid a great attention in performing artistic. It was very necessary decorated the surfaces of these works with certain forms of ornamentations represented by manipulation and repetition. Ornamentations are forms that can be shaped of linear lings that can be resulted from crossing straight and curve lines. Giving details about ornaments leads us to study our ancient history Since it first came into being 5000 BC.

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.

From "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq" toss dungeons

Amer Sulieman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76812

The "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq", which is in its final stages of completion, included hundreds of topics
related to written and unwritten law that governed the Iraqi communities that lived in Mesopotamia since the
dawn of history and the beginning of the use of writing as a means of codification and transfer of ideas and customs,
and then laws, decrees and instructions In the first half of the third millennium until the end of the national rule in
Iraq and its fall under the fire of the Persian and Greek foreign occupation in the middle of the first millennium BC.

Water supply and disposal in Assyria in the light of cuneiform sources.

Eman Hani Alloush

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69779

The supply and disposal of water in the cities and the capital in ancient Iraq is one of the important civilizational achievements and one of the most important elements of civilization whose influence has spread to the civilizations of the neighboring countries of Mesopotamia. The cuneiform texts and archaeological evidence reflected the importance of providing water to the population in ancient Iraq, especially the modern Assyrian era, as well as finding ways to drain the (heavy) wastewater.

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