About Journal

ISSN:  2304-103X (Print) ISSN: 2664-2794 (online)   Editor: Professor Khalid Salim Ismael, College of archaeology, University of Mosul. Editorial Board: https://athar.mosuljournals.com/journal/editorial.board   Frequency: 2 issues per year Athar Al-Rafedain Journal (AARJ) is a trusted scientific journal that examines the monuments of Iraq and the ancient Near East, as well as ancient languages with their dialects and comparative studies, as well as cuneiform writings and ancient fonts, and it is also concerned with ancient history and...
Read More ...

Proverbs of Animals in the Sumerian Cuneiform Sources

Zahraa Mahmood Mohammed

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 3-36
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176674

Proverbs of animals are the largest collection of Sumerian proverbs recorded so far, as we do not find an analogue of them in the Akkadian language. The Sumerian scribe likened the qualities possessed by animals to human qualities such as sincerity, loyalty, honesty, mercy and courage, as well as disgraceful qualities such as treachery, betrayal, arrogance, boldness and gluttony, cruelty and applied them on animals believed to have such qualities to avoid confronting them and to prevent their evil. Proverbs mentioned a number of animals and focused on recording wild animals such as lion, fox, deer, bear, moose and others. As for domesticated animals such as dogs and cattle of all kinds and the rest of the animals which he domesticated and relied on in his daily life at that time. As for birds, a number of them were mentioned, such as crows and owls, and insects including locusts and flies were mentioned in some proverbs.

The Historical Sense of the Assyrian king Tuklti-Ninurta (II) 890-884 BC

Ahmed Zidan Al-Hadidi

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-60
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176675

The research focused on the study of the history of Assyria for only seven years of its long history, specifically during the years of the reign of King Tawaklti-Nanurta (II) extending from the year 890 until the year 884 BC. Recording the achievements made during the years of his rule inside and outside Assyria in a systematic and scientific manner that is indisputable, especially when compared with the method used today in writing history. In his texts, the Assyrian king chronicled the place and time of the event by day, month and year, so he preserved his architectural and political achievements, in addition to preserving the legacy of his predecessors who preceded him on the Assyrian crown.

Cuneiform Writings on the Seals Impressions of City Rulers from the Ur III Period


Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 61-80
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176676

The editions of cylinder seals on the cuneiform texts discovered in various cities of ancient Iraq provided us with valuable information about

the nature of the jobs that existed in ancient Iraq, especially the era of Ur III (2112-2004) BC, which witnessed the return of the Sumerian peoples to rule after being excluded from it for a period of more than  Two hundred years ago, and with the return of the Sumerians to rule, specialization in jobs appeared and the administrative hierarchy was given great importance.  Editions of the seals of the ruler's Adequate information on how the cuneiform text inscribed on the surface of the seal was formulated and its location in the overall view of the seal, as well as the preamble for the rulers that distinguished their functions from the rest of the functions based on the information contained therein.

The Effect of the Senses in The Poetic Image of Mesopotamia Writers

Mohammed Ahmed Mohammed

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 81-98
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176677

The poetic image is considered the backbone of poetry and as the structure of the poem. The Mesopotamian poets depended on it to present their ideas and emotions. It can represent the form that shows the poet or artist's geniality and experience is manifested, and the tool for conveying ideas to the recipient in an effective way, and because the image is the essence of poetry, the poet writes his entity with it, though, depiction, expression, and language, to create for us a meaning within the meaning, so its importance appeared among poets in terms of Dimensions of the poem, its structure, composition and linking it with the other parts of the poem to clarify the idea to be demonstrated.
Literary texts left to us by Mesopotamian writers indicate that their civilization was not only footprints on the sands of time, but rather it is the heritage of the written word that is still the essence of humanity and its thought. How did he translate and convey his feelings that he was feeling as well as the thoughts that he had through the five senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch), which were the basis for the first image to be described as traditional at first, but it evolved to reach advanced stages of speech and logic, so With the presence of these senses, we got to know the natural environment with its mountains, plains, marshes, deserts and all the animals that lived in them, in addition to the religious environment that was permeated in the psyche of that person and that left its prominent impact on the composition of his personality, as religious rituals and worship were directly linked to human activities. As for the social environment that the cuneiform texts showed us, it seems that the Sumerian society was a mythical society that believed in superstition and supernatural powers. People who were keen on their commitment to the customs and traditions that they brought by taking pride in the heroism of ancestors and writers, to inherit this social fabric a literature that is less than its counterpart in the ancient world due to the influence of the island peoples by Sumerian and vice versa towards legends, epics, lamentations, spinning, prayer, supplications, hymns, etc.

Parthian Pottery from Tell Maskan, First Season 2008

Najat Ali Mohammed

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 99-126
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176678

The Archaeological excavations carried out by State Board of Antiquities and Heritage at the site of Tal Maskan, the first season in the summer of September 2008 AD, which was included in the list of sites that have been subjected to abuse for decades and are still, resulted in various archaeological collections in terms of cultural value. The most abundant in number, the richness of its technical subjects, and its service purposes, and it varied according to its misfortune after unveiling it among the rubble of the four points identified by the mission, as well as the preliminary data of previous investigations from the staff of the General Authority for Antiquities on the surface of the hill site in 1972, which Indicated broken pottery as well as mounds of ashes; This was confirmed by the results of the excavations of the first season 2008 AD within the sounding points in the depths of the first and second layers.

Metathesis in Akkadian and Arabic Languages: A Contrastive Study

Abbas Ibrahim Saber

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 127-148
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176679

The phenomenon of metathesis in the sounds of most of the languages of the world prompted us to search for this topic in the Akkadian language, and compare it with the Arabic language to bring it closer and facilitate its understanding for the Arab reader, because the Akkadian language is one of the dead languages, and this topic related to the sounds and its heart is difficult to understand if it is not approximated or matched with One of the living languages, and the result was the collection of most of the words in which a spatial reversal occurred in the Akkadian and Arabic languages, and the comparison of words close to them with each other, in addition to reaching results that may be similar at times and different at other times.

Izz Al-Din Ibn Al-Atheer Narrated the Mosul Forces Battles with Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi (570-571 AH/ 1174-1175AD)

Manahl Osama Jar-Allah Al-Khero

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 149-166
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176680

The narrations of Izz al-Din Ibn al-Atheer on the battles that took place between the forces of Mosul and the Salah Al-Din  Al-Ayoubi of army of are a clear indication of the disclosure of  Ibn al-Atheer’s tendencies for the Zangids who live in their confines .and the  research dealt  with  his  narratires  that  relates to the battle of the qarun  Hama (570 AH/1174AD) and Tal al- sultan(571AH/1175AD) , the importance of the research lies in touching on the details of  Ibn Al-Atheer's  narrations and comparing them with contemporary sources of the event, some of which were from his approved sources, but he omitted or summarized some passages while Ibn Al-Atheer's accounts were an important source for those who came after him, and their influence remained in  Their texts, and at the same time it was the historians who tended to Salah Al-Din Such as Al-Emad Isfahani and Ibn Shaddad His anecdotes, had signed them responsibility to defend the positions of Salah Al-Din and legitimate Unitary, The research is divided into the first paragraphs qarun  Hama and the second Tal Al-Sultan, and each paragraph dealt with confrontation and results details.

Ownership of Agricultural Land and Collecting it in India (Hegira 4th century - 8th century / AD 10th - 14th century)

Suleiman Mohammed Ali

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 167-182
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176681

The research aims to identify the ownership of agricultural land in India from the fourth century AH / tenth century AD to the eighth century AH / fourteenth century AD, which the researchers did not focus on, and did not give an integrated picture of it, given the importance of agriculture in India, which is the backbone of their economy, and a craft The majority of Indian society, we must learn about the types of land ownership, especially after the entry of the Muslim conquerors to India and their expansion within it, after the third AH / ninth century AD, and the change of the land ownership system, which was previously followed, and the area of ​​all fiefs of the lands of princes, pens owners and leaders The army and endowment lands, and is the ownership of the land fixed, or does it change from one period to another, knowing the reasons that lead to the withdrawal of the land, and who was working in the cultivation of agricultural land, and also learning about the tax system, its type in kind or cash, and the amount imposed on each land , according to the quality of watering the land, whether permanently or militarily, and appointing the workers who receive the levy money.

Astronomy in Ottoman Painting

Shaymaa Jasim Albadri

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 183-206
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176682

Celestial bodies have occupied human beings' thinking and become a target to examine their essence and composition. Human beings started observing their movements and tried to explain these movements and connect them with global climate change occurring around. Basically، this led man to study them and record observations. Hence، astronomy becomes a science with its own structure، scientists and students who recorded all relevant events and enriched the libraries with their original contributions.
Astronomy is an important science that is associated with human life. It organizes the temporal life in accounting days، months and years. It is also the science to which Muslim rituals such as: prayer، fasting، pilgrimages are related closely to human life، as many other rituals do. Many other religions' rituals are related with it as well. People did not only record their observations and results of their scientific studies in astronomy، but also provided them with paintings that supported the value and role of these studies. A good example is what the Ottoman school contributed in manuscripts painting; as Ottoman Sultans had a profound interest in Astronomy. They devoted great educational institutions to it as expressed in beautiful miniature paintings of Ottoman Sultans' ceremonies.
Artistic Ottoman school miniatures that we attained are many. They maintain to us different astronomical phenomena and paths.  They even depict the astronomical observatory with its scientific staff engaged in work. The paper would examine all what has been mentioned with historical evidences.

"A Study of Unpublished Cuneiform Texts from Neo-Sumerian Period"

Hussein Mohammed Ridha Al-Hummeri

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 207-226
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176683

The economic texts are considered as one of the most important documents that reflect the economic condition of society, Neo-Sumerian Period  (2200-2004 B.C) is one of the most abundant regards the greatest period that provides important documents to study the economic a social conditions of that period, this research studied four unpublished cuneiform texts belong to Iraqi Museum, but their location and reference are unknown, among all of them are historical formulas, two of them date back to Šū-Suen (2037-2029 B.C), the forth king of Ur III dynasty, the other two date back to Ibbi-Suen (2028-2004 B.C)  the last king of this dynasty, the research includes three sections the first deals with the contents of the cuneiform texts, the second about transliteration, translations and vocabulary explanations of these texts, as well as making manual copies for these texts, since the origin of these texts doesn’t have determined the researcher studied the names of the months that were scribed on them and tried to determine their regions, the third section is  studying  personal names that mentioned in these texts these.

A Look into the Neo-Assyrian Countryside: the Iron Age III Settlement of Taşlı Geçit Höyük in the Islahiye Valley

Gabreile Giacosa

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 227-238
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176684

Turco-Italian excavations on the site of Taşlı Geçit Höyük, located in the Islahiye valley (South-Eastern Turkey), partially investigated a rural settlement dating to the Iron Age III (late 8th-7th cent. BC). The evidence from the site represents an opportunity for further insights on the impact of the Neo-Assyrian Empire on the countryside of the Northern Levant.

Early Bronze IV Pottery Assemblages from Umm Al-Hafriyat Southern Mesopotamia

Eleonora Mariani

Athar Alrafedain, 2023, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 239-251
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2023.176685

The 2016-2018 QADIS survey project, conducted jointly by the University of Bologna and the SBAH, has investigated the south-eastern part of the Al Qadisiyah region. This paper will focus on the Early Bronze IV (Akkadian and Post-Akkadian) pottery assemblage collected from the surface survey carried out at QD033 – Umm al-Hafriyat.

Unpublished Economic Texts from the Reign of King Shu-Suen

Khalid Salim Ismael; Shaymaa Waleed Abdulrahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-61
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164597

This collections; is from the new  confiscated texts  kept in the Iraqi Museum ; consists of ( 22) cuneiform texts  dated to the Ur  Ш period  (2012-2002)BC. And the date formulae on them belongs to the years 6th -7th of the reign of king Shu-Suen (2037-2029) BC. Most of the texts deal with barley flour expenses. The main personal names mentioned in the texts are : (puzur-Eshtar , ur-dlama , e2 – sag – il – la , lugal-ša3-la2 , ur-dba-ba  ,   ur-al-la ) .

The Epic of Gilgamish :The Origin and Effectiveness

Ali Yaseen. Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 7-32
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164596

Epic of Gilgamesh of Mesopotamian literatures is considered one of the oldest mythical heroes of ancient civilization, it has been passed on from ancient Iraq to the ancient near eastern nations. It is everlasting because it dealt with essential subject concern human being. On the other hand it represent contradiction of live such as : good and evil; strong and weak ; rich and poor; life and death etc.., all of these are related to gods wishes. These subject were and are occupy human being’s thinking because it is effect his everyday life therefore his effort either the avoid it or to get rid of it. These subjects drew attention of unknown Sumerian scholar who wrote it down in poetic form according to his personal , social, religious and political situations. 

The Conservation of clay Tablets from Al-Sulaymaniyah Museum

Khalid Salim Ismael; Hagar Mohammad Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164598

The conservation and cleaning of the clay Tablets have the same importance of historical content . Clay tablets vary in their volumes and shapes ; some of them are small and some are big others are very big ; whereas their shape is either rectangle or square .Since the clay tablets were made of clay which contains different kinds of salt which were formed as a result of temperature change and high or low  humidity ;therefore ,there are two kinds of clay tablets found in the archaeological sites ,they enter the lab for conservation and cleaning .The first kind is unbaked which were dried under the sun. The second kind is the basically baked or fund in a burned  archaeological site . This article shows the stages of the conservation of the clay tablets from the moment  of finding it until finishing the conservation , in order to be presented in the museum or to the researchers in a clear and clean way to be studied easily.

History of Archaeological Excavations at Nineveh city

Abdulsattar Ahmed Hussein; Munther Ali Qasim

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 191-214
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164603

Mentioning the names of some ancient cities, including the city of Nineveh in the Bible and the historical narrations of Greek and Roman classical historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon, had the greatest influence in the movement of some European travelers and tourists to the East, such as the Jewish tourist of Spain, Benjamin of Tudela, in 1160.
The former, who visited Nineveh and recorded the activities of his journey that stimulated the activities of the European scientific institutions in the nineteenth century  and sent its exploratory expeditions such as the French mission headed by the French consul Paul-Ēmile Botta in 1842 and the English mission headed by Austen Henry Layard in 1845. But, the archaeological discoveries carried out by those was closer to rummage rather than, namely, excavations. The biggest concern of these amateurs was to obtain precious and beautiful pieces to decorate the museums of the Western countries. However, no importance was attached to the scientific documentation of the discovered pieces. What resulted from those errors, the loss of valuable archaeological information.
The scientific excavations phase in Iraq, in general, did not begin until the beginning of the twentieth century when the German missions began drilling in the cities of Babylon and Ashur, but the beginning of World War I prevented the continuation of the foreign exploration works in Iraq.
Then, the final stage of the history of excavations was represented by the national excavations in 1938 after the enactment of a law concerned with archeology in 1936. On this basis, this modest research was divided into a number of chapters. The first of which discussed the city of Nineveh in terms of its geographical location, the importance of the city, its naming, history and layouts. The second chapter dealt with the activities of travelers and tourists. The third chapter dealt with the activities of the amateur prospectors. And, the fourth which is the final chapter studied the scientific exploration phase.

The Agricultural Products Marketing in Ancient Iraqi Cities

Hussein Dhahir Hammood.; Haifa Ahmed Abid

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 79-95
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164599

Tackling the topic of agricultural products marketing at the ancient ages refers to the evaluation of economy in Iraq at that time. Throughout the study of cuneiform texts, it is clear that structure of Iraqi economy was based on the agricultural production. The marketing activity depends on a group of essential factors, like the ones that are related to the type of agricultural products, the quantities of surplus products, the perfect transporting, and freedom exchanging and fixed tariffs for prices, the adequate environmental conditions and the marketing organized by kings and rulers of the Iraqi cities at that time and basically related to the foundation of temple which was responsible for all transactions and the processes of trading exchange.

Geometric Motifs in ancient Sumerian Art

Ghassan Mardan

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 189-199
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69784

Ornamentations in Ancient Sumerian Art are very important in studies related to ruins of ancient arts. Artists in ancient Mesopotamia have paid a great attention in performing artistic. It was very necessary decorated the surfaces of these works with certain forms of ornamentations represented by manipulation and repetition. Ornamentations are forms that can be shaped of linear lings that can be resulted from crossing straight and curve lines. Giving details about ornaments leads us to study our ancient history Since it first came into being 5000 BC.

The Relationship Between The Assyrian Kings and Their Gods

Ali Yassen Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 3-19
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69793

The Assyria were group of the Amorite tribes who migrate from west of Mesopotamia (Syria) by the beginning of the second Millennium B.C and they established their city state in Mari, Isin, Larsa, Babylon and Ešnunna in Middle and south of Ancient Iraq. Aššur, however inaugurated in the North part and developed its commercial relationship with Cappadocia even they established their own commercial center there. Normally the Assyrian history divided into Old, Middle and Neo. The later was the most important one in Ancient Near Eastern history, because the Assyrian expands their empire to word Anatolia, Mediterranean region and Egypt as well. Our Historical textual information's come from the Middle and Neo Assyrian periods however royal and private correspondence and everyday life activities ie social, trade, religious literature etc. mainly Neo-Assyrian from the seven century until the fall of Nineveh in 612 B.C.

From "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq" toss dungeons

Amer Sulieman

Athar Alrafedain, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2013.76812

The "Encyclopedia of Law in Ancient Iraq", which is in its final stages of completion, included hundreds of topics
related to written and unwritten law that governed the Iraqi communities that lived in Mesopotamia since the
dawn of history and the beginning of the use of writing as a means of codification and transfer of ideas and customs,
and then laws, decrees and instructions In the first half of the third millennium until the end of the national rule in
Iraq and its fall under the fire of the Persian and Greek foreign occupation in the middle of the first millennium BC.

Water supply and disposal in Assyria in the light of cuneiform sources.

Eman Hani Alloush

Athar Alrafedain, 2012, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 145-157
DOI: 10.33899/athar.2012.69779

The supply and disposal of water in the cities and the capital in ancient Iraq is one of the important civilizational achievements and one of the most important elements of civilization whose influence has spread to the civilizations of the neighboring countries of Mesopotamia. The cuneiform texts and archaeological evidence reflected the importance of providing water to the population in ancient Iraq, especially the modern Assyrian era, as well as finding ways to drain the (heavy) wastewater.

Keyword Cloud