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Scientific journal looking at the effects of Iraq and the Arab world issued by the Faculty of Archaeology University of Mosul.has released tow volumes of the Journal No:1,2(2012-2013)
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  uom.atharalrafedain@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Khalid Salim Ismael

Print ISSN: 2304-103X

Online ISSN: 2664-2794

The Epic of Gilgamish :The Origin and Effectiveness

Prof. Dr. Ali Yaseen. Aljuboori

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 7-32
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164596

Epic of Gilgamesh of Mesopotamian literatures is considered one of the oldest mythical heroes of ancient civilization, it has been passed on from ancient Iraq to the ancient near eastern nations. It is everlasting because it dealt with essential subject concern human being. On the other hand it represent contradiction of live such as : good and evil; strong and weak ; rich and poor; life and death etc.., all of these are related to gods wishes. These subject were and are occupy human being’s thinking because it is effect his everyday life therefore his effort either the avoid it or to get rid of it. These subjects drew attention of unknown Sumerian scholar who wrote it down in poetic form according to his personal , social, religious and political situations. 

Unpublished Economic Texts from the Reign of King Shu-Suen

Prof. Khalid Salim Ismael; Dr. Shaymaa Waleed Abdulrahman

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-61
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164597

This collections; is from the new  confiscated texts  kept in the Iraqi Museum ; consists of ( 22) cuneiform texts  dated to the Ur  Ш period  (2012-2002)BC. And the date formulae on them belongs to the years 6th -7th of the reign of king Shu-Suen (2037-2029) BC. Most of the texts deal with barley flour expenses. The main personal names mentioned in the texts are : (puzur-Eshtar , ur-dlama , e2 – sag – il – la , lugal-ša3-la2 , ur-dba-ba  ,   ur-al-la ) .

The Conservation of clay Tablets from Al-Sulaymaniyah Museum

Prof . Khalid Salim Ismael; Hagar Mohammad Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164598

The conservation and cleaning of the clay Tablets have the same importance of historical content . Clay tablets vary in their volumes and shapes ; some of them are small and some are big others are very big ; whereas their shape is either rectangle or square .Since the clay tablets were made of clay which contains different kinds of salt which were formed as a result of temperature change and high or low  humidity ;therefore ,there are two kinds of clay tablets found in the archaeological sites ,they enter the lab for conservation and cleaning .The first kind is unbaked which were dried under the sun. The second kind is the basically baked or fund in a burned  archaeological site . This article shows the stages of the conservation of the clay tablets from the moment  of finding it until finishing the conservation , in order to be presented in the museum or to the researchers in a clear and clean way to be studied easily.

The Agricultural Products Marketing in Ancient Iraqi Cities

Prof. Dr. Hussein Dhahir Hammood.; Dr. Haifa Ahmed Abid

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 79-95
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164599

Tackling the topic of agricultural products marketing at the ancient ages refers to the evaluation of economy in Iraq at that time. Throughout the study of cuneiform texts, it is clear that structure of Iraqi economy was based on the agricultural production. The marketing activity depends on a group of essential factors, like the ones that are related to the type of agricultural products, the quantities of surplus products, the perfect transporting, and freedom exchanging and fixed tariffs for prices, the adequate environmental conditions and the marketing organized by kings and rulers of the Iraqi cities at that time and basically related to the foundation of temple which was responsible for all transactions and the processes of trading exchange.

Geographical Study and Urban Investigations in the Province of Ḫabḫu in the Light of Assyrian Sources

Prof. Dr. AMER ABDULLAH NAJM AL – JUMAILI

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 97-127
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164600

The province of ḫabḫu is one of the vast provinces located on the northern border of Assyria. This province was frequently mentioned in many cuneiform sources from the Neo-Assyrian period. It was a strategic center and a linking area on the famous Assyrian Royal Road
It was coveted by the two main powers in the ancient Near East: namely the Kingdoms of Urartu and Assyria, because its location on commercial roads, its major mineral production and horses breeding areas.
The Extensions and Geographical Scope of the Province of ḫabḫu:
From some of the Assyrian kings' annals, we conclude that this Assyrian province represents a border area for Assyria, extending from the Upper Zab River to the border with the Hittites, i.e. from the Zab River seemed to have been the province's eastern border, which included Alluba, modern Zakho. It extended westwards to the Hittite border in central Asia and Anatolia. This means it used to include: Ibin Omar Island in south-eastern Turkey, Zakho, Amadiyah, Alqush, Shikhan and Aqrah, with its center located in the town of Amadiyah.
The scholar managed to discover and match many of the villages, towns and cities that were affiliated to this province, of those that remained unidentified by researchers, with local sites and archaeological hills at present.

Aspects of Freedom and Despotism in the central Administration Systems in the ner-Assyriam Kingdom

Prof. Dr. Safwan Sami Saeed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 129-159
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164601

As it apsearse , This  research aims at shedding light on reality of the  administrative work In the ner- Assyrian Kingdom(911-612 B.C) among concept of expression about their ideas ,defence of their attitudes , taking decisions within the tasks and powers entrusted to them on one hand , and obstacles of  their carring out on optimum loved represented by the aspects of domination and despotism on the other.  thus ,the central administration adopted by. The Assyrian kings to administer  their kingdom has secreted in their tendency to  giving  power for a category of officials of the palace whose   nature of their works  was diversified ,and at the same time the tasks they weres
 entrusted by the palace , were   numerous  that caused to intervention in the power with other officials , therefore  some of them utilized those   pivileges given to them by the king    Directly or indirectly in exercising a certain kind of domination and despotism , that this reality created a kind of obstacles in the   Administrative work in directing affairs of the kingdom and citizens represented by the aspects of: disdaining ,haughtiness ,and law-breaking etc …..
Finally ,this matter reached at the unjust ices and appeals which were submitting by officials of the   Kingdom either to the King or to  his Crown Prince subsequently .

Personality of the Assyrian Kings and Their Leading Characters

Prof. Dr. Safwan Sami Saeed; Afra'a Yahya Qasem

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 161-190
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164602

     It is said mostly that glory of the Assyrian Empire was not established except on the forearms of its valiant kings that is a matter that no one can deny since the Assyrian army was the striking force in achieving the expansionist aims of its kings . Also, the war that was the prevailing feature in life lived by the Assyrians for centuries through time about which we know much; but on other rand ,there were other internal hiding places contributed effectively in building each of fund mental of the strong state and the cohesive society ; that were rightly the solid base of that inherited glory concerning to behavior of the Assyrian kings and their efficacious approach in establishing rules of the rational ruling of what they excelled in the leading characters such: prestige, bravery, politeness, wisdom, justice, and adherence to administer affairs of the kingdom and central administration by means of limiting the powers within their hands ; whereas they were rightly kings of the empire and builders of that civilization .

History of Archaeological Excavations at Nineveh city

Dr. Abdulsattar Ahmed Hussein; Assist. Lec. Munther Ali Qasim

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 191-214
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164603

Mentioning the names of some ancient cities, including the city of Nineveh in the Bible and the historical narrations of Greek and Roman classical historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon, had the greatest influence in the movement of some European travelers and tourists to the East, such as the Jewish tourist of Spain, Benjamin of Tudela, in 1160.
The former, who visited Nineveh and recorded the activities of his journey that stimulated the activities of the European scientific institutions in the nineteenth century  and sent its exploratory expeditions such as the French mission headed by the French consul Paul-Ēmile Botta in 1842 and the English mission headed by Austen Henry Layard in 1845. But, the archaeological discoveries carried out by those was closer to rummage rather than, namely, excavations. The biggest concern of these amateurs was to obtain precious and beautiful pieces to decorate the museums of the Western countries. However, no importance was attached to the scientific documentation of the discovered pieces. What resulted from those errors, the loss of valuable archaeological information.
The scientific excavations phase in Iraq, in general, did not begin until the beginning of the twentieth century when the German missions began drilling in the cities of Babylon and Ashur, but the beginning of World War I prevented the continuation of the foreign exploration works in Iraq.
Then, the final stage of the history of excavations was represented by the national excavations in 1938 after the enactment of a law concerned with archeology in 1936. On this basis, this modest research was divided into a number of chapters. The first of which discussed the city of Nineveh in terms of its geographical location, the importance of the city, its naming, history and layouts. The second chapter dealt with the activities of travelers and tourists. The third chapter dealt with the activities of the amateur prospectors. And, the fourth which is the final chapter studied the scientific exploration phase.

Evil Prevention Rituals NAM.BÚR.BI of The Ancient Iraqis

Dr. Nabeel Khalid Sheet

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 215-229
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164604

The paper tackles studying the rituals which are called (namburbi) in ancient Mesopotamia ,the concept consists of a series of procedures and practices that have magical and religious nature simultaneously ,they were made by the priests so as to make people get rid the evils that are present due to the different omens right before happening , According to their beliefs at that time , they inflict harm , the length of these rituals depends upon the financial status of people and the social one , during which certain gods known for their affection and compassion to human beings were being called upon

Marriage between the cuneiform and the Qur'anic text- A comparative study

Lec. Nesreen Ahmed Abd; Prof.Dr. Salim. Y. Khalaf

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 231-267
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164605

Marriage is a social phenomenon which mean the coupling between a man and a woman for the sake of reproduction, the preserving of human race , and making family .
This happens with the consent of society. Marriage is a strong bond and an economical and social instruction .It lead to real stability for the married couple .
Archaeological and historied study show that the norms of marriage is not the same in ancient oriental societies.
In fact they were different depending on the places and the soci-economical conditions and their foreign linkage.
This fact necessitates that we establish the roots of those marriages through studying cuneiform tablets and scrutinizing.
 Their contents to explain them to readers and to show how far they were widespread in semitic societies .we came across a number of terms that name those strange marriage such as secret affairs , shaghar (exchange of sisters),enslaving ect.. It seems that these marriages was not limited to pre-Islamic Arab society, but also know to other semitic societies may be because those socities were surrounded by different races and cultures which had a negative effect on normal marriage which aims to establish the basic unit of society , the family.
 Islam approved this type of marriage and prohibited other types due to their negative impact, which can lead to the demolition of family, which is the topic of this paper.

Loan Contracts from City of Lagaba from Old Babylonian period

Lec. Aram Jalal Hassan Hamawandi

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 269-288
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164606

The loan contracts study and their analysis is one of the most important economic documents that shed light on the understanding of the economic system that prevailed in the old Babylonian period (2002-1595). It helps to know the motherlands of economic concentration and the authorities in the economic system, and to know commercial activities and economic level of the population at large.
This research consists of the reading and analysis of four unpublished cuneiform texts from the old Babylonian period from the city of Lagaba from the Iraqi Museum. All four texts reached the Iraqi Museum by way of confiscation in the middle of the last century. , Two of them dating back to the king (Hammurabi-Hammamrabi) (1792- 1750 BC), while the other two texts was back to the king (Samsu-iluna) (1750-1712 BC).  
The nature of the texts, three of them are in good condition, the fourth is broken and slightly distorted, but with this I was able to read it based on information in the other texts. Three of the four texts bear stamp of cylinder seals with cuneiform inscriptions.
The importance of this research first, is that it consists of reading and analyzing unpublished cuneiform texts. Second, these texts are back to the city of Lagaba, whose place has not been discovered to this day, which is considered one of the flourishing economic cities of Kings Hammurabi and Samsu-iluna.

Alaiejam and From in Arabic Calligraphy

Lec. Wassan abd almutlib hassan

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 289-307
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164607

  The Arabic calligraphy is considered  a  decorative aesthetic , in addition ti its role  in transmition of information , ideas and opinious . Where it occupies an important  position in the Islamic arts as he was cared by Muslim artist. Arabic calligraphy was the fist attention of the scholars , princes and caliphs Muslim artist developed and inuovated in calligraphy until it brought advanced stages and different models .
   As for the subject of our research is the from and the reluctance in the  Arabic calligraphy, the Source of our stady of this Subject descended from the origind theoretical origin, Which is the Islamic writings, from, history and evolution . Many texts have been included a ssumptions and jurisprudence and inherited opinions, of most of them are true, some of these opinions the mind is not acceptable, the transport is subject to error, illusion, in crease or decrease. The second source is the materid or tangible source, in cluding what wrote on the stone papyrus and various writing materials including inscriptions. The study have three categories, the first category is alaiojam, it means signs that are placedabove the similar characters in the drawing or below to distinguish them from each others, the second section is the from of restricing the letters to remove ambiguity to the reader in the expression . the third section, is the colors of the in used to distinguish the movement from points.
   These study depends on many references from there the important of oure test to this subject , and this subject have abenefit, in many life aspeets because these subject give us a clear picture about the developments of Arabic calligraphy in the society on different ages .

Tal al-Huwaish (the city of Obasi?) In the Cuneiforml writings and archaeological investigations

Lec. Ghassan Salih Al-Hamedha

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 309-334
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164608

A search dealing with a city whose remnants have been removed is referred to by the locals as (Al-Huwaish), which is a miniaturization of the Courtyard (house or its courtyard). Some of the specialists in the city (Ubase) match it and attribute it to the Assyrian ages, and perhaps to the oldest times. The remains of this city are located on a hill above a series of highlands that line the West Bank from the ancient Tigris basin. It occupies a flat area surrounded by low hills forming its old wall. Tell Al-Huwaish is located about (16 km) north of Qalat Sharqat (Ashur), at the mouth of Wadi Al-Jirnaf in the Tigris basin. Despite its cultural importance and other hills to its north, it is still far from the activities of prospectors. However, the torrential rains of this year (2018- 2019) swept away parts of it, especially overlooking the deep valley of the Jirnaf, revealing quantities of pottery vessels of various shapes and sizes, which were covered by the media, which was the catalyst for writing about this city and its attention and drew attention to it And other cities north of Assyria, the capital.

The Geographical Distribution Zones of Northern Ubaid Ware

Assist. Lec. Duraid S. Polis Polis

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 335-363
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164609

We have divided this research into two parts: The first is in regard to the geographical distribution of Northern Ubaid ware, through making a complete statistic of archaeological sites to document those that contained the settlements of the Ubaid period, which the total Northern Ubaid settlements are 597 sites. Thus, we classed the areas of its distribution into three zones: main, intermediate and secondary distribution zones. This statistic included the number of Northern Ubaid sites in each of the three distribution zones as well as in each of the countries: Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, in addition, the number of sites surveyed and excavated, all of this calculated in percentages.
The second part of the research deals with the question of the entry of Ubaid ware to Upper Mesopotamia in an earlier than is known of the Ubaid III period and we discussed some of the evidence currently available about the presence of Ubaid II ware (Hajji Muhammed) in upper Mesopotamia. It is worth to mention that we have reached important results, as we proved that the Ubaid culture entered to upper Mesopotamia earlier than the Ubaid III, in the Ubaid II (Hajji Muhammed).
 

Alaiejam and From in Arabic Calligraphy

Lec. Wassan abd almutlib hassan

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 289-307
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164607

  The Arabic calligraphy is considered  a  decorative aesthetic , in addition ti its role  in transmition of information , ideas and opinious . Where it occupies an important  position in the Islamic arts as he was cared by Muslim artist. Arabic calligraphy was the fist attention of the scholars , princes and caliphs Muslim artist developed and inuovated in calligraphy until it brought advanced stages and different models .
   As for the subject of our research is the from and the reluctance in the  Arabic calligraphy, the Source of our stady of this Subject descended from the origind theoretical origin, Which is the Islamic writings, from, history and evolution . Many texts have been included a ssumptions and jurisprudence and inherited opinions, of most of them are true, some of these opinions the mind is not acceptable, the transport is subject to error, illusion, in crease or decrease. The second source is the materid or tangible source, in cluding what wrote on the stone papyrus and various writing materials including inscriptions. The study have three categories, the first category is alaiojam, it means signs that are placedabove the similar characters in the drawing or below to distinguish them from each others, the second section is the from of restricing the letters to remove ambiguity to the reader in the expression . the third section, is the colors of the in used to distinguish the movement from points.
   These study depends on many references from there the important of oure test to this subject , and this subject have abenefit, in many life aspeets because these subject give us a clear picture about the developments of Arabic calligraphy in the society on different ages .

Evil Prevention Rituals NAM.BÚR.BI of The Ancient Iraqis

Dr. Nabeel Khalid Sheet

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 215-229
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164604

The paper tackles studying the rituals which are called (namburbi) in ancient Mesopotamia ,the concept consists of a series of procedures and practices that have magical and religious nature simultaneously ,they were made by the priests so as to make people get rid the evils that are present due to the different omens right before happening , According to their beliefs at that time , they inflict harm , the length of these rituals depends upon the financial status of people and the social one , during which certain gods known for their affection and compassion to human beings were being called upon

Aspects of Freedom and Despotism in the central Administration Systems in the ner-Assyriam Kingdom

Prof. Dr. Safwan Sami Saeed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 129-159
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164601

As it apsearse , This  research aims at shedding light on reality of the  administrative work In the ner- Assyrian Kingdom(911-612 B.C) among concept of expression about their ideas ,defence of their attitudes , taking decisions within the tasks and powers entrusted to them on one hand , and obstacles of  their carring out on optimum loved represented by the aspects of domination and despotism on the other.  thus ,the central administration adopted by. The Assyrian kings to administer  their kingdom has secreted in their tendency to  giving  power for a category of officials of the palace whose   nature of their works  was diversified ,and at the same time the tasks they weres
 entrusted by the palace , were   numerous  that caused to intervention in the power with other officials , therefore  some of them utilized those   pivileges given to them by the king    Directly or indirectly in exercising a certain kind of domination and despotism , that this reality created a kind of obstacles in the   Administrative work in directing affairs of the kingdom and citizens represented by the aspects of: disdaining ,haughtiness ,and law-breaking etc …..
Finally ,this matter reached at the unjust ices and appeals which were submitting by officials of the   Kingdom either to the King or to  his Crown Prince subsequently .

Marriage between the cuneiform and the Qur'anic text- A comparative study

Lec. Nesreen Ahmed Abd; Prof.Dr. Salim. Y. Khalaf

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 231-267
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164605

Marriage is a social phenomenon which mean the coupling between a man and a woman for the sake of reproduction, the preserving of human race , and making family .
This happens with the consent of society. Marriage is a strong bond and an economical and social instruction .It lead to real stability for the married couple .
Archaeological and historied study show that the norms of marriage is not the same in ancient oriental societies.
In fact they were different depending on the places and the soci-economical conditions and their foreign linkage.
This fact necessitates that we establish the roots of those marriages through studying cuneiform tablets and scrutinizing.
 Their contents to explain them to readers and to show how far they were widespread in semitic societies .we came across a number of terms that name those strange marriage such as secret affairs , shaghar (exchange of sisters),enslaving ect.. It seems that these marriages was not limited to pre-Islamic Arab society, but also know to other semitic societies may be because those socities were surrounded by different races and cultures which had a negative effect on normal marriage which aims to establish the basic unit of society , the family.
 Islam approved this type of marriage and prohibited other types due to their negative impact, which can lead to the demolition of family, which is the topic of this paper.

Personality of the Assyrian Kings and Their Leading Characters

Prof. Dr. Safwan Sami Saeed; Afra'a Yahya Qasem

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 161-190
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164602

     It is said mostly that glory of the Assyrian Empire was not established except on the forearms of its valiant kings that is a matter that no one can deny since the Assyrian army was the striking force in achieving the expansionist aims of its kings . Also, the war that was the prevailing feature in life lived by the Assyrians for centuries through time about which we know much; but on other rand ,there were other internal hiding places contributed effectively in building each of fund mental of the strong state and the cohesive society ; that were rightly the solid base of that inherited glory concerning to behavior of the Assyrian kings and their efficacious approach in establishing rules of the rational ruling of what they excelled in the leading characters such: prestige, bravery, politeness, wisdom, justice, and adherence to administer affairs of the kingdom and central administration by means of limiting the powers within their hands ; whereas they were rightly kings of the empire and builders of that civilization .

History of Archaeological Excavations at Nineveh city

Dr. Abdulsattar Ahmed Hussein; Assist. Lec. Munther Ali Qasim

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 191-214
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164603

Mentioning the names of some ancient cities, including the city of Nineveh in the Bible and the historical narrations of Greek and Roman classical historians such as Herodotus and Xenophon, had the greatest influence in the movement of some European travelers and tourists to the East, such as the Jewish tourist of Spain, Benjamin of Tudela, in 1160.
The former, who visited Nineveh and recorded the activities of his journey that stimulated the activities of the European scientific institutions in the nineteenth century  and sent its exploratory expeditions such as the French mission headed by the French consul Paul-Ēmile Botta in 1842 and the English mission headed by Austen Henry Layard in 1845. But, the archaeological discoveries carried out by those was closer to rummage rather than, namely, excavations. The biggest concern of these amateurs was to obtain precious and beautiful pieces to decorate the museums of the Western countries. However, no importance was attached to the scientific documentation of the discovered pieces. What resulted from those errors, the loss of valuable archaeological information.
The scientific excavations phase in Iraq, in general, did not begin until the beginning of the twentieth century when the German missions began drilling in the cities of Babylon and Ashur, but the beginning of World War I prevented the continuation of the foreign exploration works in Iraq.
Then, the final stage of the history of excavations was represented by the national excavations in 1938 after the enactment of a law concerned with archeology in 1936. On this basis, this modest research was divided into a number of chapters. The first of which discussed the city of Nineveh in terms of its geographical location, the importance of the city, its naming, history and layouts. The second chapter dealt with the activities of travelers and tourists. The third chapter dealt with the activities of the amateur prospectors. And, the fourth which is the final chapter studied the scientific exploration phase.

The Agricultural Products Marketing in Ancient Iraqi Cities

Prof. Dr. Hussein Dhahir Hammood.; Dr. Haifa Ahmed Abid

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 79-95
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164599

Tackling the topic of agricultural products marketing at the ancient ages refers to the evaluation of economy in Iraq at that time. Throughout the study of cuneiform texts, it is clear that structure of Iraqi economy was based on the agricultural production. The marketing activity depends on a group of essential factors, like the ones that are related to the type of agricultural products, the quantities of surplus products, the perfect transporting, and freedom exchanging and fixed tariffs for prices, the adequate environmental conditions and the marketing organized by kings and rulers of the Iraqi cities at that time and basically related to the foundation of temple which was responsible for all transactions and the processes of trading exchange.

Geographical Study and Urban Investigations in the Province of Ḫabḫu in the Light of Assyrian Sources

Prof. Dr. AMER ABDULLAH NAJM AL – JUMAILI

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 97-127
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164600

The province of ḫabḫu is one of the vast provinces located on the northern border of Assyria. This province was frequently mentioned in many cuneiform sources from the Neo-Assyrian period. It was a strategic center and a linking area on the famous Assyrian Royal Road
It was coveted by the two main powers in the ancient Near East: namely the Kingdoms of Urartu and Assyria, because its location on commercial roads, its major mineral production and horses breeding areas.
The Extensions and Geographical Scope of the Province of ḫabḫu:
From some of the Assyrian kings' annals, we conclude that this Assyrian province represents a border area for Assyria, extending from the Upper Zab River to the border with the Hittites, i.e. from the Zab River seemed to have been the province's eastern border, which included Alluba, modern Zakho. It extended westwards to the Hittite border in central Asia and Anatolia. This means it used to include: Ibin Omar Island in south-eastern Turkey, Zakho, Amadiyah, Alqush, Shikhan and Aqrah, with its center located in the town of Amadiyah.
The scholar managed to discover and match many of the villages, towns and cities that were affiliated to this province, of those that remained unidentified by researchers, with local sites and archaeological hills at present.

Alaiejam and From in Arabic Calligraphy

Lec. Wassan abd almutlib hassan

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 289-307
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1970.164607

  The Arabic calligraphy is considered  a  decorative aesthetic , in addition ti its role  in transmition of information , ideas and opinious . Where it occupies an important  position in the Islamic arts as he was cared by Muslim artist. Arabic calligraphy was the fist attention of the scholars , princes and caliphs Muslim artist developed and inuovated in calligraphy until it brought advanced stages and different models .
   As for the subject of our research is the from and the reluctance in the  Arabic calligraphy, the Source of our stady of this Subject descended from the origind theoretical origin, Which is the Islamic writings, from, history and evolution . Many texts have been included a ssumptions and jurisprudence and inherited opinions, of most of them are true, some of these opinions the mind is not acceptable, the transport is subject to error, illusion, in crease or decrease. The second source is the materid or tangible source, in cluding what wrote on the stone papyrus and various writing materials including inscriptions. The study have three categories, the first category is alaiojam, it means signs that are placedabove the similar characters in the drawing or below to distinguish them from each others, the second section is the from of restricing the letters to remove ambiguity to the reader in the expression . the third section, is the colors of the in used to distinguish the movement from points.
   These study depends on many references from there the important of oure test to this subject , and this subject have abenefit, in many life aspeets because these subject give us a clear picture about the developments of Arabic calligraphy in the society on different ages .

The Conservation of clay Tablets from Al-Sulaymaniyah Museum

Prof . Khalid Salim Ismael; Hagar Mohammad Ahmed

Athar Alrafedain, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 63-77
DOI: 10.33899/athar.1999.164598

The conservation and cleaning of the clay Tablets have the same importance of historical content . Clay tablets vary in their volumes and shapes ; some of them are small and some are big others are very big ; whereas their shape is either rectangle or square .Since the clay tablets were made of clay which contains different kinds of salt which were formed as a result of temperature change and high or low  humidity ;therefore ,there are two kinds of clay tablets found in the archaeological sites ,they enter the lab for conservation and cleaning .The first kind is unbaked which were dried under the sun. The second kind is the basically baked or fund in a burned  archaeological site . This article shows the stages of the conservation of the clay tablets from the moment  of finding it until finishing the conservation , in order to be presented in the museum or to the researchers in a clear and clean way to be studied easily.

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